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  • Book I, Chapter I, Section II, Word 244 (Word_ID 638)
      patrons, they consisted in giving assistance to their clients in affairs public and private; and for the latter, in aiding constantly the patrons with their person and purse, and in preserving towards them an inviolable fidelity: they could not cite each
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section II, Word 342 (Word_ID 736)
      was this essential difference, that the clients were not serfs, but free men. Slavery had long formed one of the constituent parts of society. The slaves, taken among foreigners and captives, and associated in all the domestic labours of the family,
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section III, Word 375 (Word_ID 1439)
      military organisation, and hence originated the name of Quirites to signify the Roman people. The members of the curia were constituted into religious associations, having each its assemblies and solemn festivals which established bonds of affiliation between them. When their assemblies
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section III, Word 523 (Word_ID 1587)
      they divided the lower class of the people into corporations, and augmented the number of the tribes and changed their constitution; but to effect the second, they introduced, to the great discontent of the higher class, plebeians among the patricians, and
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section V, Word 190 (Word_ID 3376)
      the Senate, freedmen among the citizens, and the mass of citizens into the ranks of the soldiery. Family is strongly constituted; the father reigns in it absolute master, sole judge over his children, his wife, and his slaves, and that during
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section V, Word 538 (Word_ID 3724)
      with the Etruscan rites, and come to soften manners, and lend their aid to religion; everywhere temples arise, circuses are constructed, great works of public utility are erected, and Rome, by its institutions, paves the way for its pre-eminence. Almost all
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section V, Word 676 (Word_ID 3862)
      the hierarchy gives his rank to each individual. Thus Rome, having reached the third century of her existence, finds her constitution formed by the kings with all the germs of grandeur which will develop themselves in the sequel. Man has created
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section I, Word 437 (Word_ID 4345)
      prerogatives of royalty. The aristocratic government has this advantage over monarchy, that it is more immutable in its duration, more constant in its designs, more faithful to traditions, and that it can dare everything, because where a great number share the
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section I, Word 723 (Word_ID 4631)
      the others. In order to raise himself to State dignities, and merit the suffrages of his fellow-citizens, the patrician was constrained, from his youngest age, to undergo the most varied trials. He was required to possess dexterity of body, eloquence, aptness
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section I, Word 864 (Word_ID 4772)
      almost absolute in the exercise of command contributed further to the development of the faculties. At the present day, our constitutional habits have raised distrust towards power into a principle; at Rome, trust was the principle. In our modern societies, the
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section I, Word 1400 (Word_ID 5308)
      made opportunely useful concessions. Skilful in repairing incessantly its defeats, it took again, under another form, what it had been constrained to abandon, losing often some of its attributes, but preserving its prestige always untouched. Thus, the characteristic fact of the
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section I, Word 1553 (Word_ID 5461)
      to antagonisms more calculated to cause anarchy than to consolidate true liberty. Let us examine, in these last relations, the constitution of the Republic.
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section II, Word 80 (Word_ID 5544)
      one consul was annulled by the opposition of his colleague. On the other hand, the short duration of their magistracy constrained them either to hurry a battle in order to rob their successor of the glory, or to interrupt a campaign
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section II, Word 374 (Word_ID 5838)
      limited: we may convince ourselves of this by the following terms of the law which established the office:— Nobody“ shall constrain a tribune of the people, like a man of the commonalty, to do anything against his will; it shall not
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section III, Word 24 (Word_ID 6218)
      of the Aristocracy. This political organisation, the reflex of a society composed of so many different elements, could hardly have constituted a durable order of things, if the ascendency of a privileged class had not controlled the causes of dissensions. This
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section V, Word 140 (Word_ID 9470)
      so laboriously. If the fall of the kingly power, in giving more vitality and independence to the aristocracy, rendered the constitution of the State more solid and durable, the democracy had at first no reason for congratulation. Two hundred years passed
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section V, Word 249 (Word_ID 9579)
      recover from the shocks and enfeebling influence of even the most legitimate revolutions. Yet Roman society had been vigorously enough constituted to resist at the same time external attacks and internal troubles. Neither the invasions of Porsenna, nor those of the
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section V, Word 357 (Word_ID 9687)
      two orders; written laws had been adopted, and the attributes of the different magistracies had been better defined, but the constitution of society remained the same. The facility granted to the plebeians of arriving at all the State employments only increased
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section V, Word 1473 (Word_ID 10803)
      of Rome then bore a great resemblance to that of England before its electoral reform. For several centuries, the English Constitution was vaunted as the palladium of liberty, although then, as at Rome, birth and fortune were the unique source of
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section II, Word 906 (Word_ID 12775)
      all the valleys. The town of the seven hills, favoured by her natural situation as well as by her political constitution, carried thus in herself the germs of her future greatness.
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 370 (Word_ID 13155)
      in part the Quiritary law, and might obtain the complete right of Roman citizens on certain conditions; it is what constituted the jus Latii; these first two categories preserved their autonomy and their magistrates; third, the towns which had lost all
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section VI, Word 392 (Word_ID 16299)
      successes of the Roman arms led to the conclusion of treaties of peace with all the peoples of Southern Italy, constrained thenceforward to acknowledge the majesty of the Roman people. The AEqui remained alone exposed to the wrath of Rome; the
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section X, Word 564 (Word_ID 19031)
      the Forum, and each town kept within the narrow limits of its communal administration. The Italian nationality was thus gradually constituted by means of this political centralisation, without which the different peoples would have mutually weakened each other by intestine wars,
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section I, Word 18 (Word_ID 20853)
      SECTION I Commerce of the Mediterranean. ROME had required two hundred and forty-four years to form her constitution under the kings, a hundred and seventy-two to establish and consolidate the consular Republic, seventy-two to complete the conquest of
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section II, Word 761 (Word_ID 21941)
      in these countries lay under the influence and often the sovereignty of Carthage: the Massylian Numidians, who afterwards had Cirta Constantine() for their capital; the Massaesylian Numidians, who occupied the provinces of Algiers and Oran; and the Mauri, or Moors, spread
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section XV, Word 574 (Word_ID 28220)
      of Asia. Hence Seleucus Nicator formed the project of opening a way of direct communication between Greece and Bactriana, by constructing a canal from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea. Mines of precious metals were rather rare in Syria; but
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section I, Word 124 (Word_ID 31061)
      the Etruscans or the Samnites. The superiority of Carthage at the beginning of the Punic wars was evident; yet the constitution of the two cities might have led any one to foresee which in the end must be the master. A
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section II, Word 434 (Word_ID 32027)
      enemy. An incomparable energy supplied in a short time the insufficiency of the fleet: a hundred and twenty galleys were constructed after the model of a Carthaginian quinquireme which had been cast on the coast of Italy; and soldiers were exercised
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section V, Word 1800 (Word_ID 36134)
      lastly, shut up in the peninsula by the Roman fleets, which guarded its coasts to intercept reinforcements from Carthage. His constant thought, therefore, was to make himself master of some important points of the coast in order to open a communication
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section V, Word 2558 (Word_ID 36892)
      the most considerable, laden with stores and troops, was destroyed on the coast of Sicily. We cannot but admire the constancy of the Romans in face of enemies who threatened them on all sides. During the same period they repressed the
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VIII, Word 67 (Word_ID 39948)
      or confederation. Then, as formerly, the Athenians, the Spartans, the Boeotians, the AEtolians, and, finally, the Achaeans, each endeavoured to constitute an Hellenic league for their own advantage; and each aspiring to dominate over the others, turned alternately to those from
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XI, Word 227 (Word_ID 42320)
      and Cisalpine Gaul. In Sicily she preserved the most intimate alliance with Hiero, tyrant of Syracuse, for fifty years. The constant support of this prince must have shown the Senate how much such alliances were preferable to direct dominion. In Spain
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XIII, Word 624 (Word_ID 45416)
      Celtiberians. Whilst these occupied Metellus the Macedonian, Fabius, left alone against Viriathus, was hemmed into a defile by him, and constrained to accept peace. The murder of Viriathus left the issue of the war no longer doubtful. This death was too
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section II, Word 686 (Word_ID 49256)
      Machiavelli says: Men“ value riches even more than honours, and the obstinacy of the Roman aristocracy in defending its possessions constrained the people to have recourse to extremities.” The chiefs of the opposition, great landholders, such as the tribune Octavius and
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section III, Word 222 (Word_ID 50236)
      the poor citizens, the monthly distribution of a certain quantity of wheat; and for this purpose vast public granaries were constructed. The shortening of the time of service of the soldiers, the prohibition to enrol them under seventeen years of age,
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 3027 (Word_ID 58145)
      of the consuls every year, an example which was subsequently followed by the emperors. Calm re-established in Rome, a new constitution was promulgated, which restored the aristocracy to its ascendency. The dictator fell into the delusion of believing that a system
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section I, Word 1106 (Word_ID 60545)
      had a sonorous and penetrating voice, a noble gesture, and an air of dignity reigned over all his person. His constitution, at first delicate, became robust by a frugal regimen and the habit of exposing himself to the inclemency of the
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section I, Word 1367 (Word_ID 60806)
      and morally, two natures rarely united in the same person. He joined an aristocratic delicacy of body to the muscular constitution of the warrior; the love of luxury and the arts to a passion for military life, in all its simplicity
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section II, Word 351 (Word_ID 61197)
      with indulgence, without reminding him of the past. Meanwhile, he still wandered about in the Sabine country. His courage, his constancy, his illustrious birth, his former quality of flamen, excited general interest. Soon important personages, such as Aurelius Cotta, his mother’s
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section II, Word 911 (Word_ID 67277)
      manners. We do not find very defined principles in him, either in political or private life; he was neither a constant friend nor an irreconcilable enemy. Fitter to serve as an instrument for the elevation of another, than to elevate himself
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section VIII, Word 412 (Word_ID 72064)
      of opposition, he supported all that could hurt his enemies and favour a change of system. Besides, all parties were constrained to deal with those who enjoyed the popular favour. The nobles accepted as candidate C. Antonius Hybrida, a worthless man,
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section IX, Word 6 (Word_ID 72131)
      SECTION IX the difficulty of constituting a New Party. We thus see that the misfortunes of the times obliged the most notable men to have dealings
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section IX, Word 612 (Word_ID 72737)
      the standard of reform, had sullied it with blood, and compromised it by revolts. Caesar raised and purified it. To constitute his party, it is true, he had recourse to agents but little estimated; the best architect can build only with
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section IX, Word 640 (Word_ID 72765)
      recourse to agents but little estimated; the best architect can build only with the materials under his hand; but his constant endeavour was to associate to himself the most trustworthy men, and he spared no effort to gain by turns Pompey,
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section IV, Word 355 (Word_ID 75568)
      comitia, the most gloomy thoughts agitated his ardent mind, and calculating that if he should not succeed, his debts would constrain him perhaps to go into exile, he embraced his mother and said, To“-day thou wilt see me grand pontiff or
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section V, Word 1821 (Word_ID 77560)
      culprits are forgotten, to remember only the punishment, if it has been too severe. What“ D. Silanus, a man of constancy and courage, has said, has been inspired in him, I know, by his zeal for the Republic, and in so
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section V, Word 3922 (Word_ID 79661)
      Caesar was quite sure of being raised to the consulship, and his impatience never betrayed his ambition. Moreover, he had constantly shown a marked aversion to civil war; and why should he throw himself into a vulgar conspiracy with infamous individuals,
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section V, Word 4810 (Word_ID 80549)
      I have taken in hand, according to my custom, the common cause of all the unfortunate. I am represented as constrained by debts to this bold resolution: it is a calumny. My personal means are sufficient to acquit my engagements; and I have taken in hand, according to my custom, the common cause of all the unfortunate. I am represented as constrained by debts to this bold resolution: it is a calumny. My personal means are sufficient to acquit my engagements; and
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section V, Word 5451 (Word_ID 81190)
      a revolutionary despotism, of the ruin of the aristocratic party, and, according to Dio Cassius, of a change in the constitution of the Republic, and of the subjugation of the allies. Yet would his success have been a misfortune: a permanent a revolutionary despotism, of the ruin of the aristocratic party, and, according to Dio Cassius, of a change in the constitution of the Republic, and of the subjugation of the allies. Yet would his success have been a misfortune: a permanent
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section V, Word 4810 (Word_ID 82950)
      I have taken in hand, according to my custom, the common cause of all the unfortunate. I am represented as constrained by debts to this bold resolution: it is a calumny. My personal means are sufficient to acquit my engagements; and I have taken in hand, according to my custom, the common cause of all the unfortunate. I am represented as constrained by debts to this bold resolution: it is a calumny. My personal means are sufficient to acquit my engagements; and
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section V, Word 5451 (Word_ID 83591)
      a revolutionary despotism, of the ruin of the aristocratic party, and, according to Dio Cassius, of a change in the constitution of the Republic, and of the subjugation of the allies. Yet would his success have been a misfortune: a permanent a revolutionary despotism, of the ruin of the aristocratic party, and, according to Dio Cassius, of a change in the constitution of the Republic, and of the subjugation of the allies. Yet would his success have been a misfortune: a permanent
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section IX, Word 404 (Word_ID 86268)
      towns were rebuilt or founded. Finally, Pontus, Cilicia, Syria, Phoenicia, declared to be Roman provinces, were obliged to accept the constitution imposed upon them by the conqueror. These countries received institutions which they preserved through several centuries. All the shores of
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section I, Word 697 (Word_ID 89635)
      a peninsula. It is situated about twenty-five leagues from Lisbon. As Caesar had no ships, he ordered rafts to be constructed, on which some troops crossed. The rest thought that they might venture through some shallows, which, at low tide, formed
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section II, Word 282 (Word_ID 90435)
      over Sertorius, that foe to the aristocracy, though officially it was only talked of as a victory over the Spaniards. Constrained to choose between an idle pageant and real power, Caesar did not hesitate. The ground had been well prepared for
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section II, Word 843 (Word_ID 90996)
      himself with regard to the causes of his change of party, and did not acknowledge to himself the reasons that constrained him to look out for powerful patrons. Like all men destitute of force of character, instead of openly confessing the
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section IV, Word 135 (Word_ID 92763)
      give him Bibulus for a colleague, who had already been his colleague in the edileship and the praetorship, and had constantly shown himself his opponent. They all made a pecuniary contribution to influence the elections; Bibulus spent large sums, and the
  • Book II, Chapter V, Section II, Word 622 (Word_ID 94387)
      time to time, under frivolous pretexts. Cato, without making a direct opposition, alleged the necessity of changing nothing in the constitution of the Republic, and declared himself the adversary of all kind of innovation; but, when the moment came for voting,
  • Book II, Chapter V, Section V, Word 1432 (Word_ID 100107)
      designs against his life. Against such animosities he had the task, no easy one, of directing the elections. The Roman constitution caused new candidates to spring up every year for honours; and it was indispensable to have partisans amongst the two