Workflows for Paywalled Texts and Open Data Ideals: Search Example

Back to main post

rom

650 total occurrences

(Source #):

  • Book I, Chapter , Section , Word 3 (Word_ID 3)
      BOOK I. ROMAN HISTORY BEFORE CAESAR.
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section , Word 9 (Word_ID 9)
      CHAPTER I. ROME UNDER THE KINGS.
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section I, Word 7 (Word_ID 19)
      SECTION I The Kings found the Roman Institutions. In“ the birth of societies,” says Montesquieu, it“ is the chiefs of the republics who form the institution, and
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section I, Word 53 (Word_ID 65)
      the institution which forms the chiefs of the republics.” And he adds, One“ of the causes of the prosperity of Rome was the fact that its kings were all great men. We find nowhere else in history an uninterrupted series of
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section I, Word 90 (Word_ID 102)
      an uninterrupted series of such statesmen and such military commanders.” The story, more or less fabulous, of the foundation of Rome does not come within the limits of our design; and with no intention of clearing up whatever degree of fiction
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section I, Word 136 (Word_ID 148)
      may contain, we purpose only to remind our readers that the kings laid the foundations of those institutions to which Rome owed her greatness, and so many extraordinary men who astonished the world by their virtues and exploits. The kingly power
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section I, Word 167 (Word_ID 179)
      the world by their virtues and exploits. The kingly power lasted a hundred and forty-four years, and at its fall Rome had become the most powerful state in Latium. The town was of vast extent, for, even at that epoch, the
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section I, Word 237 (Word_ID 249)
      the increase of the population had led to the establishment of immense suburbs, which finally inclosed the Pomoerium itself. The Roman territory properly so called was circumscribed, but that of the subjects and allies of Rome was already rather considerable. Some
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section I, Word 252 (Word_ID 264)
      inclosed the Pomoerium itself. The Roman territory properly so called was circumscribed, but that of the subjects and allies of Rome was already rather considerable. Some colonies had been founded. The kings, by a skilful policy, had succeeded in drawing into
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section II, Word 6 (Word_ID 400)
      SECTION II Social Organisation. The Roman social body, which originated probably in ancient transformations of society, consisted, from the earliest ages, of a certain number of
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section II, Word 181 (Word_ID 575)
      under the name of clients, either foreigners, or a great portion of the plebeians. Dionysius of Halicarnassus even pretends that Romulus had required that each of these last should choose himself a patron. The clients cultivated the fields and formed part
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section II, Word 437 (Word_ID 831)
      of clients, freedmen, and slaves. To give an idea of the importance of the gentes in the first ages of Rome, it is only necessary to remind the reader that towards the year 251, a certain Attus Clausus, afterwards called Appius
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section II, Word 489 (Word_ID 883)
      Dionysius of Halicarnassus, no less for the splendour of his birth than for his great wealth, took refuge among the Romans with his kinsmen, his friends, and his clients, with all their families, to the number of five thousand men capable
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section III, Word 277 (Word_ID 1341)
      voting in the assemblies. The gentes were themselves divided into three tribes. Each, commanded by a tribune, was obliged, under Romulus, to furnish a thousand soldiers indeed(, miles comes from mille) and a hundred horsemen celeres(). The tribe was divided into
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section III, Word 367 (Word_ID 1431)
      was then the basis of the political and military organisation, and hence originated the name of Quirites to signify the Roman people. The members of the curia were constituted into religious associations, having each its assemblies and solemn festivals which established
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section IV, Word 13 (Word_ID 2476)
      SECTION IV Religion. Religion, regulated in great part by Numa, was at Rome an instrument of civilisation, but, above all, of government. By bringing into the acts of public or private life the
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section IV, Word 120 (Word_ID 2583)
      battle, the emblem placed on the standard was the protecting god of the legion. The national sentiment and belief that Rome would become one day the mistress of Italy was maintained by oracles or prodigies; but if, on the one hand,
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section IV, Word 182 (Word_ID 2645)
      of the institutions, and preserved the influence of the higher classes. Religion also accustomed the people of Latium to the Roman supremacy; for Servius Tullius, in persuading them to contribute to the building of the Temple of Diana, made them, says
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section IV, Word 205 (Word_ID 2668)
      Servius Tullius, in persuading them to contribute to the building of the Temple of Diana, made them, says Livy, acknowledge Rome for their capital, a claim they had so often resisted by force of arms. The supposed intervention of the Deity
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section IV, Word 670 (Word_ID 3133)
      temples for the purpose of deifying, some, glory, others, the virtues, others, utility, and others, gratitude to the gods. The Romans loved to represent everything by external signs: thus Numa, to impress better the verity of a state of peace or
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section V, Word 18 (Word_ID 3204)
      SECTION V Results obtained by Royalty. The facts which precede are sufficient to convince us that the Roman Republic had already acquired under the kings a strong organisation. Its spirit of conquest overflowed beyond its narrow limits. The
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section V, Word 69 (Word_ID 3255)
      as enlightened and citizens equally courageous, but there certainly did not exist among them, to the same degree as at Rome, the genius of war, the love of country, faith in high destinies, the conviction of an incontestible superiority, powerful motives
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section V, Word 105 (Word_ID 3291)
      an incontestible superiority, powerful motives of activity, instilled into them perseveringly by great men during two hundred and forty-four years. Roman society was founded upon respect for family, for religion, and for property; the government, upon election; the policy, upon conquest.
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section V, Word 311 (Word_ID 3497)
      dignities; but he has more charges to support, more duties to fulfil. In fighting, as well as in voting, the Romans are divided into classes according to their fortunes, and in the comitia, as on the field of battle the richest
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section V, Word 476 (Word_ID 3662)
      arms. The policy of the State consists in drawing by all means possible the peoples around under the dependence of Rome; and, when their resistance renders it necessary to conquer them, they are, in different degrees, immediately associated with the common
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section V, Word 547 (Word_ID 3733)
      and lend their aid to religion; everywhere temples arise, circuses are constructed, great works of public utility are erected, and Rome, by its institutions, paves the way for its pre-eminence. Almost all the magistrates are appointed by election; once chosen, they
  • Book I, Chapter I, Section V, Word 665 (Word_ID 3851)
      struggles, the citizens crowd to the games of the circus, where the hierarchy gives his rank to each individual. Thus Rome, having reached the third century of her existence, finds her constitution formed by the kings with all the germs of
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section I, Word 12 (Word_ID 3920)
      SECTION I Advantage of the Republic. THE kings are expelled from Rome. They disappear because their mission is accomplished. There exists, one would say, in moral as well as physical order, a
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section I, Word 169 (Word_ID 4077)
      the whole world. From that moment the genius of force and imagination must necessarily preside over the first times of Rome. This is what happened under the kings, and, so long as their task was not accomplished, it triumphed over all
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section I, Word 464 (Word_ID 4372)
      traditions, and that it can dare everything, because where a great number share the responsibility, no one is individually responsible. Rome, with its narrow limits, had no longer need of the concentration of authority in a single hand, but it was
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section I, Word 576 (Word_ID 4484)
      the greatness of their country. The fall of the kingly power was thus an event favourable to the development of Rome. The patricians monopolised during a long time the civil, military, and religious employments, and, these employments being for the most
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section I, Word 875 (Word_ID 4783)
      development of the faculties. At the present day, our constitutional habits have raised distrust towards power into a principle; at Rome, trust was the principle. In our modern societies, the depositary of any authority whatever is always under the restraint of
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section I, Word 910 (Word_ID 4818)
      is always under the restraint of powerful bonds; he obeys a precise law, a minutely detailed rule, a superior. The Roman, on the contrary, abandoned to his own sole responsibility, felt himself free from all shackles; he commanded as master within
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section I, Word 1150 (Word_ID 5058)
      the jealousy of the patricians by distributing wheat to the people during a famine; in 369, Manlius, the saviour of Rome, because he had expended his fortune in relieving insolvent debtors. Thus will fall victims to the same accusation the reformer
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section I, Word 1421 (Word_ID 5329)
      to abandon, losing often some of its attributes, but preserving its prestige always untouched. Thus, the characteristic fact of the Roman institutions was to form men apt for all functions. As long as on a narrow theatre the ruling class had
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section II, Word 106 (Word_ID 5570)
      battle in order to rob their successor of the glory, or to interrupt a campaign in order to proceed to Rome to hold the comitia. The defeats of the Trebia and Cannae, with that of Servilius Caepio by the Cimbri, were
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section II, Word 168 (Word_ID 5632)
      simultaneous exercise of their prerogatives, the consuls agreed to take in campaign the command alternately day by day, and at Rome each to have the fasces during a month; but this innovation had also vexatious consequences. It was even thought necessary,
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section III, Word 248 (Word_ID 6442)
      of laws afterwards known as the Laws of the Twelve Tables, which, engraved on brass, became the foundation of the Roman public law. Yet they persisted in making illegal the union contracted between persons of the two orders, and left the
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section IV, Word 14 (Word_ID 7454)
      SECTION IV Elements of Dissolution. At the beginning of the fifth century of Rome, the bringing nearer together of the two orders had given a greater consistence to society; but, just as we have
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section IV, Word 55 (Word_ID 7495)
      seen under the kingly rule, the principles begin to show themselves which were one day to make the greatness of Rome, so now we see the first appearance of dangers which will be renewed unceasingly. Electoral corruption, the law of perduellio,
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section IV, Word 569 (Word_ID 8009)
      of the arable land). This was done in view of the increase of the Italic population, which was judged at Rome the most laborious, and to have allies of their own race. But the measure produced a result contrary to that
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section IV, Word 792 (Word_ID 8232)
      inalienable, and we read in an ancient author:—“Lawyers deny that the soil which has once begun to belong to the Roman people, can ever, by usage or possession, become the property of anybody else in the world.” In spite of this
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section IV, Word 1662 (Word_ID 9102)
      put us in bonds for the debts we have contracted? What advantage shall we have in strengthening the empire of Rome, if we cannot preserve our personal liberty?” Yet the patricians, who contributed more than the others to the costs of
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section V, Word 14 (Word_ID 9344)
      SECTION V Resume. This rapid sketch of the evils already perceptible which tormented Roman society leads us to this reflection: it is the lot of all governments, whatever be their form, to contain within
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section V, Word 243 (Word_ID 9573)
      many years a country requires to recover from the shocks and enfeebling influence of even the most legitimate revolutions. Yet Roman society had been vigorously enough constituted to resist at the same time external attacks and internal troubles. Neither the invasions
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section V, Word 307 (Word_ID 9637)
      such as Valerius Publicola, A. Postumius, Coriolanus, Spurius Cassius, Cincinnatus, and Camillus, had distinguished themselves as legislators and warriors, and Rome could put on foot ten legions, or forty-five thousand men. At home, important advantages had been obtained, and notable concessions
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section V, Word 756 (Word_ID 10086)
      vigour by Valerius and Horatius in 305, and again by Valerius Corvus in 454. And, on this occasion, the great Roman historian exclaims, I“ can only explain this frequent renewal of the same law by supposing that the power of some
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section V, Word 1407 (Word_ID 10737)
      purity of marriages, the education of children, the treatment of slaves and clients, and the cultivation of the lands. The“ Romans did not believe,” says Plutarch, that“ each individual ought to be allowed the liberty to marry, to have children, to
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section V, Word 1454 (Word_ID 10784)
      give festivities, or even to follow his desires and tastes, without undergoing a previous inspection and judgment.” The condition of Rome then bore a great resemblance to that of England before its electoral reform. For several centuries, the English Constitution was
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section V, Word 1485 (Word_ID 10815)
      its electoral reform. For several centuries, the English Constitution was vaunted as the palladium of liberty, although then, as at Rome, birth and fortune were the unique source of honours and power. In both countries the aristocracy, master of the elections
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section V, Word 1517 (Word_ID 10847)
      In both countries the aristocracy, master of the elections by solicitation, money, or rotten boroughs, caused, as the patricians at Rome, the members of the nobility to be elected to parliament, and no one was citizen in either of the two
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section V, Word 1632 (Word_ID 10962)
      by the grandeur of the spectacle. Thus, far be from us the intention of blaming the nobility, any more in Rome than in England, for having preserved its preponderance by all the means which laws and habits placed at its disposal.
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section V, Word 1704 (Word_ID 11034)
      without that elevation of views, without that severe and inflexible virtue, the distinguishing character of the aristocracy, the work of Roman civilisation would not have been accomplished. At the beginning of the fifth century, the Republic, consolidated, is going to gather
  • Book I, Chapter II, Section V, Word 1741 (Word_ID 11071)
      is going to gather the fruit of the many efforts it has sustained. More united henceforward, in the interior, the Romans will turn all their energy towards the conquest of Italy, but it will require nearly a century to realise it.
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section II, Word 12 (Word_ID 11881)
      SECTION II Dispositions of the People of Italy in regard to Rome. In 416, Rome had finally subdued the Latins, and possessed part of Campania. Her supremacy extended from the present territory
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section II, Word 15 (Word_ID 11884)
      SECTION II Dispositions of the People of Italy in regard to Rome. In 416, Rome had finally subdued the Latins, and possessed part of Campania. Her supremacy extended from the present territory of Viterbo to
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section II, Word 100 (Word_ID 11969)
      a thick forest silva( Ciminia), formed a rampart against Etruria. The southern part of this country had been long half Roman; the Latin colonies of Sutrium Sutri() and Nepete Nepi() served as posts of observation. But the Etruscans, animated for ages
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section II, Word 125 (Word_ID 11994)
      Sutrium Sutri() and Nepete Nepi() served as posts of observation. But the Etruscans, animated for ages with hostile feeling towards Rome, attempted continually to recover the lost territory. The Gaulish Senones, who, in 364, had taken and burnt Rome, and often
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section II, Word 143 (Word_ID 12012)
      feeling towards Rome, attempted continually to recover the lost territory. The Gaulish Senones, who, in 364, had taken and burnt Rome, and often renewed their invasions, had come again to try their fortune. In spite of their defeats in 404 and
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section II, Word 191 (Word_ID 12060)
      the Umbrians and Etruscans in attacking the Republic. The Sabines, though entertaining from time immemorial tolerably amicable relations with the Romans, offered but a doubtful alliance. Picenum, a fertile and populous country, was peaceful, and the greater part of the mountain
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section II, Word 229 (Word_ID 12098)
      of the mountain tribes of Sabellic race, in spite of their bravery and energy, inspired as yet no fear. Nearer Rome, the AEqui and the Hernici had been reduced to inaction; but the Senate kept in mind their hostilities and nourished
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section II, Word 296 (Word_ID 12165)
      were obliged to have recourse to mercenary troops, to resist the native inhabitants. They disputed with the Samnites and the Romans the preponderance over the people of Magna Graecia. The Samnites, indeed, a manly and independent race, aimed at seizing the
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section II, Word 391 (Word_ID 12260)
      considerable riches; their arms displayed excessive extravagance, and, if we believe Caesar, they served as models for those of the Romans. A jealous rivalry had long prevailed between the Romans and the Samnites. The moment these two peoples found themselves in
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section II, Word 400 (Word_ID 12269)
      we believe Caesar, they served as models for those of the Romans. A jealous rivalry had long prevailed between the Romans and the Samnites. The moment these two peoples found themselves in presence of each other, it was evident that they
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section II, Word 489 (Word_ID 12358)
      of the Liris, thence reach the country of the Aurunci, always ready to revolt, and cut off the communications of Rome with Campania; or follow the course of the upper Liris into the country of the Marsi, raise these latter, and
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section II, Word 518 (Word_ID 12387)
      upper Liris into the country of the Marsi, raise these latter, and hold out the hand to the Etruscans, turning Rome; or, lastly, penetrate into Campania by the valley of the Vulturnus, and fall upon the Sidicini, whose territory they coveted.
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section II, Word 575 (Word_ID 12444)
      itself above the others, and in subjugating them, it must have possessed peculiar elements of superiority. The peoples who surrounded Rome, warlike and proud of their independence, had neither the same unity, nor the same incentives to action, nor the same
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section II, Word 634 (Word_ID 12503)
      they fought, it was much more to increase their riches by pillage than to augment the number of their subjects. Rome triumphed, because alone, in prospect of a future, she made war not to destroy, but to conserve, and, after the
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section II, Word 718 (Word_ID 12587)
      in intestine struggles, had successively introduced manners and traditions stronger even than the institutions themselves. During three centuries, in fact, Rome presented, in spite of the annual renewal of powers, such a perseverance in the same policy, such a practice of
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section II, Word 786 (Word_ID 12655)
      its generals were great warriors, all its senators experienced statesmen, and all its citizens valiant soldiers. The geographical position of Rome contributed no less to the rapid increase of its power. Situated in the middle of the only great fertile plain
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 15 (Word_ID 12800)
      SECTION III Treatment of the Vanquished Peoples. From the commencement of the fifth century Rome prepares with energy to subject and assimilate to herself the peoples who dwelt from the Rubicon to the Strait of
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 116 (Word_ID 12901)
      the same rule, but by causing them to enter, by little and little and in different degrees, into the great Roman family. Of“ one city she makes her ally; on another she confers the honour of living under the Quiritary law,
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 163 (Word_ID 12948)
      of suffrage, to that with the permission to retain its own government. Municipia of different degrees, maritime colonies, Latin colonies, Roman colonies, prefectures, allied towns, free towns, all isolated by the difference of their condition, all united by their equal dependence
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 214 (Word_ID 12999)
      vast network which will entangle the Italian peoples, until the day when, without new struggles, they will awake subjects of Rome.” Let us examine the conditions of these various categories: The right of city, in its plenitude jus( civitatis optimo jure),
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 242 (Word_ID 13027)
      various categories: The right of city, in its plenitude jus( civitatis optimo jure), comprised the political privileges peculiar to the Romans, and assured for civil life certain advantages, of which the concession might be made separately and by degrees. First came
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 276 (Word_ID 13061)
      made separately and by degrees. First came the commercium, that is, the right of possessing and transmitting according to the Roman law; next the connubium, or the right of contracting marriage with the advantages established by Roman legislation. The commercium and
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 292 (Word_ID 13077)
      transmitting according to the Roman law; next the connubium, or the right of contracting marriage with the advantages established by Roman legislation. The commercium and connubium united formed the Quiritary law jus( quiritium). There were three sorts of municipia: first, the
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 335 (Word_ID 13120)
      which the inhabitants, inscribed in the tribes, exercised all the rights and were subjected to all the obligations of the Roman citizens; secondly, the municipia sine suffragio, the inhabitants of which enjoyed in totality or in part the Quiritary law, and
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 362 (Word_ID 13147)
      the inhabitants of which enjoyed in totality or in part the Quiritary law, and might obtain the complete right of Roman citizens on certain conditions; it is what constituted the jus Latii; these first two categories preserved their autonomy and their
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 399 (Word_ID 13184)
      their autonomy and their magistrates; third, the towns which had lost all independence in exchange for the civil laws of Rome, but without enjoyment, for the inhabitants, of the most important political rights; it was the law of the Caerites, because
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 524 (Word_ID 13309)
      contingent. With the exclusion of these last, the towns which had not obtained for their inhabitants the complete rights of Roman citizens belonged to the class of allies foederati( socii). Their condition differed according to the nature of their engagements. Simple
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 583 (Word_ID 13368)
      of equality, were called foedera aequa. On the contrary, when one of the contracting parties and( it was never the Romans) submitted to onerous obligations from which the other was exempted, these treaties were called foedera non aequa. They consisted almost
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 658 (Word_ID 13443)
      they received the right of exchange and free establishment in the capital, but they were bound to the interests of Rome by an alliance offensive and defensive. The only clause establishing the preponderance of Rome was conceived in these terms: Majestatem
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 672 (Word_ID 13457)
      were bound to the interests of Rome by an alliance offensive and defensive. The only clause establishing the preponderance of Rome was conceived in these terms: Majestatem populi Romani comiter conservanto; that is, They“ shall loyally acknowledge the supremacy of the
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 680 (Word_ID 13465)
      an alliance offensive and defensive. The only clause establishing the preponderance of Rome was conceived in these terms: Majestatem populi Romani comiter conservanto; that is, They“ shall loyally acknowledge the supremacy of the Roman people.” It is a remarkable circumstance that,
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 693 (Word_ID 13478)
      was conceived in these terms: Majestatem populi Romani comiter conservanto; that is, They“ shall loyally acknowledge the supremacy of the Roman people.” It is a remarkable circumstance that, dating from the reign of Augustus, the freedmen were divided in categories similar
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 767 (Word_ID 13552)
      important passes; and even for the sake of getting rid of the turbulent class. They were of two sorts: the Roman colonies and the Latin colonies. The former differed little from the municipia of the first degree, the others from the
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 798 (Word_ID 13583)
      the municipia of the first degree, the others from the municipia of the second degree. The first were formed of Roman citizens, taken with their families from the classes subjected to military service, and even, in their origin, solely among the
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 851 (Word_ID 13636)
      and were bound by the same obligations, and the interior administration of the colony was an image of that of Rome. The Latin colonies differed from the others in having been founded by the confederacy of the Latins on different points
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 886 (Word_ID 13671)
      of the Latins on different points of Latium. Emanating from a league of independent cities, they were not, like the Roman colonies, tied by close bonds to the metropolis. But the confederacy once dissolved, these colonies were placed in the rank
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 939 (Word_ID 13724)
      a sort of treaty guaranteeing their franchise. Peopled at first by Latins, it was not long before these colonies received Roman citizens who were induced by their poverty to exchange their title and rights for the advantages assured to the colonists.
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 1015 (Word_ID 13800)
      The isolation of the Latin colonies, placed in the middle of the enemy’s territory, obliged them to remain faithful to Rome, and to keep watch on the neighbouring peoples. Their military importance was at least equal to that of the Roman
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 1035 (Word_ID 13820)
      Rome, and to keep watch on the neighbouring peoples. Their military importance was at least equal to that of the Roman colonies; they merited as well as these latter the name of propugnacula imperii and of specula, that is, bulwarks and
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 1075 (Word_ID 13860)
      and watch-towers of the conquest. In a political point of view they rendered services of a similar kind. If the Roman colonies announced to the conquered people the majesty of the Roman name, their Latin sisters gave an ever-increasing extension to
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 1086 (Word_ID 13871)
      they rendered services of a similar kind. If the Roman colonies announced to the conquered people the majesty of the Roman name, their Latin sisters gave an ever-increasing extension to the nomen Latinum, that is, to the language, manners, and whole
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 1113 (Word_ID 13898)
      ever-increasing extension to the nomen Latinum, that is, to the language, manners, and whole civilisation of that race of which Rome was but the first representative. The Latin colonies were ordinarily founded to economise the colonies of Roman citizens, which were
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 1130 (Word_ID 13915)
      race of which Rome was but the first representative. The Latin colonies were ordinarily founded to economise the colonies of Roman citizens, which were charged principally with the defence of the coasts and the maintenance of commercial relations with foreign people.
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 1157 (Word_ID 13942)
      the defence of the coasts and the maintenance of commercial relations with foreign people. In making the privileges of the Roman citizen an advantage which every one was happy and proud to acquire, the Senate held out a bait to all
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 1266 (Word_ID 14051)
      to enter into the aristocracy, not to destroy it; the Italic peoples, to have a part in the sovereignty of Rome, not to contest it; the Roman provinces to be declared allies and friends of Rome, and not to recover their
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 1272 (Word_ID 14057)
      to destroy it; the Italic peoples, to have a part in the sovereignty of Rome, not to contest it; the Roman provinces to be declared allies and friends of Rome, and not to recover their independence. The peoples could judge, according
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 1281 (Word_ID 14066)
      part in the sovereignty of Rome, not to contest it; the Roman provinces to be declared allies and friends of Rome, and not to recover their independence. The peoples could judge, according to their conduct, what lot was reserved for them.
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 1336 (Word_ID 14121)
      rights often more precious, in the eyes of the vanquished, than independence itself. This explains the facility with which the Roman domination was established. In fact, that only is destroyed entirely which may be replaced advantageously. A rapid glance at the
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 1433 (Word_ID 14218)
      that ally to subjugate another people; in crushing the confederacies which united the vanquished against it; in attaching them to Rome by new bonds; in establishing military posts on all the points of strategic importance; and, lastly, in spreading everywhere the
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section III, Word 1459 (Word_ID 14244)
      military posts on all the points of strategic importance; and, lastly, in spreading everywhere the Latin race by distributing to Roman citizens a part of the lands taken from the enemy. But, before entering upon the recital of events, we must
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section IV, Word 17 (Word_ID 14294)
      SECTION IV Submission of Latium after the first Samnite War. During a hundred and sixty-seven years, Rome had been satisfied with struggling against her neighbours to re-conquer a supremacy lost since the fall of her kings. She
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section IV, Word 103 (Word_ID 14380)
      time, and commenced against that redoubtable people a struggle which lasted seventy-two years, and which brought twenty-four triumphs to the Roman generals. Proud of having contributed to the two great victories of Mount Gaurus and Suessula, the Latins, with an exaggerated
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section IV, Word 135 (Word_ID 14412)
      Mount Gaurus and Suessula, the Latins, with an exaggerated belief in their own strength and a pretension to equality with Rome, went so far as to require that one of the two consuls, and half of the senators, should be chosen
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section IV, Word 194 (Word_ID 14471)
      it could not suffer equals; it accepted without scruple the services of those who had just been enemies, and the Romans, united with the Samnites, the Hernici, and the Sabellian peoples, were seen in the fields of the Veseris and Trifanum,
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section IV, Word 306 (Word_ID 14583)
      drawn from it powerful succours. Will you, on the contrary, after the example of your fathers, augment the resources of Rome? Admit the vanquished among the number of your citizens; it is a fruitful means of increasing at the same time
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section IV, Word 380 (Word_ID 14657)
      their own account, all rights of commercium and connubium, between the different cities, were taken from them. The towns nearest Rome received the rights of city and suffrage. Others received the title of allies and the privilege of preserving their own
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section IV, Word 485 (Word_ID 14762)
      pacified Latium; applied to the rest of Italy, and even to foreign countries, they will facilitate everywhere the progress of Roman domination. The momentary alliance with the Samnites had permitted Rome to reduce the Latins; nevertheless the Senate, without hesitation, turned
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section IV, Word 495 (Word_ID 14772)
      to foreign countries, they will facilitate everywhere the progress of Roman domination. The momentary alliance with the Samnites had permitted Rome to reduce the Latins; nevertheless the Senate, without hesitation, turned against the former again as soon as the moment appeared
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section IV, Word 587 (Word_ID 14864)
      his co-operation had given rise, and the Samnites recommenced their incursions on the lands of their neighbours. The intervention of Rome put a stop to the war. All the forces of the Republic were employed in reducing the revolt of the
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section IV, Word 621 (Word_ID 14898)
      employed in reducing the revolt of the Volscian towns of Fundi and Privernum. In 425, Anxur Terracina() was declared a Roman colony, and, in 426, Fregellae Ceprano(?), a Latin colony. The establishment of these fortresses, and of those of Cales and
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section IV, Word 664 (Word_ID 14941)
      the communications with Campania; the Liris and the Vulturnus became in that direction the principal lines of defence of the Romans. The cities situated on the shores of that magnificent gulf called Crater by the ancients, and in our days the
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section V, Word 25 (Word_ID 15014)
      War. The fertile countries which bordered the western shore of the peninsula were destined to excite the covetousness of the Romans and the Samnites, and become the prey of the conqueror. Campania“, indeed,” says Florus, is“ the finest country of Italy,
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section V, Word 119 (Word_ID 15108)
      two peoples disputed the possession of it, as they had done in 411. The inhabitants of Palaeopolis having attacked the Roman colonists of the ager Campanus, the consuls marched against that place, which soon received succour from the Samnites and the
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section V, Word 144 (Word_ID 15133)
      Campanus, the consuls marched against that place, which soon received succour from the Samnites and the inhabitants of Nola, while Rome formed an alliance with the Apulians and the Lucanians. The siege dragged on, and the necessity of continuing the campaign
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section V, Word 241 (Word_ID 15230)
      a new treaty guaranteed them an almost absolute independence, on the condition of furnishing a certain number of vessels to Rome. After that, nearly all the Greek towns, reduced one after another, obtained the same favourable conditions, and formed the class
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section V, Word 299 (Word_ID 15288)
      with the Samnites, the only people who were still to be feared, and the Lucanians abandoned the alliance of the Romans; but, in 429, the two most celebrated captains of the time, Q. Fabius Rullianus and Papirius Cursor, penetrated into the
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section V, Word 428 (Word_ID 15417)
      the East, survived him, but at his death, the empire he founded became in a few years dismembered 431(); the Roman aristocracy, on the contrary, perpetuating itself from age to age, pursued more slowly, but without interruption, the system which, binding
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section V, Word 509 (Word_ID 15498)
      arms again; defeated in the following years, they asked for the restoration of friendly relations, but the haughty refusal of Rome led, in 433, to the famous defeat of the Furcae Caudinae. The generosity of the Samnite general, Pontus Herennius, who
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section V, Word 680 (Word_ID 15669)
      country of the Volsci, as far as the neighbourhood of Terracina, and taking a position at Lautulae, they defeated a Roman army raised hastily and commanded by Q. Fabius 439(). Capua deserted, and Nola, Nuceria, the Aurunci, and the Volsci of
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section V, Word 718 (Word_ID 15707)
      the Volsci of the Liris took part openly with the Samnites. The spirit of rebellion spread as far as Praeneste. Rome was in danger. The Senate required its utmost energy to restrain populations whose fidelity was always doubtful. Fortune seconded its
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section V, Word 783 (Word_ID 15772)
      Caudium, a numerous army encountered the Samnites, who lost 30,000 men, and were driven back into the Apennine territory. The Roman legions proceeded to encamp before their capital, Bovianum, and there took up their winter quarters. The year following 441(), Rome,
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section V, Word 803 (Word_ID 15792)
      Roman legions proceeded to encamp before their capital, Bovianum, and there took up their winter quarters. The year following 441(), Rome, less occupied in fighting, profited by this circumstance to seize upon advantageous positions, establishing in Campania and Apulia colonies which
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section V, Word 848 (Word_ID 15837)
      Samnium. At the same epoch, Appius Claudius transformed into a regular causeway the road which has preserved his name. The Romans turned their attention to the defence of the coasts and communication by sea; a colony was sent to the isle
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section V, Word 898 (Word_ID 15887)
      fleet was commenced, which was placed under the command of duumviri navales. The war had lasted fifteen years, and, although Rome had only succeeded in driving back the Samnites into their own territory, she had conquered two provinces, Apulia and Campania.
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section VI, Word 122 (Word_ID 16029)
      Republic were obliged to face different enemies at the same time. In Etruria, Fabius Rullianus relieved Sutrium, a rampart of Rome on the north; he passed through the Ciminian forest, and by the victories of Lake Vadimo 445() and Perusia compelled
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section VI, Word 166 (Word_ID 16073)
      towns to ask for peace. At the same time, an army laid waste the country of the Samnites; and a Roman fleet, composed of vessels furnished by the maritime allies, took the offensive for the first time. Its attempt near Nuceria
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section VI, Word 243 (Word_ID 16150)
      Fabius penetrates again into Samnium, and the other consul, Decius, maintains Etruria. Suddenly the Umbrians conceive the project of seizing Rome by surprise. The consuls are recalled for the defence of the town. Fabius meets the Etruscans at Mevania on( the
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section VI, Word 295 (Word_ID 16202)
      447(). Among the prisoners were some AEqui and Hernici. Their towns, feeling themselves thus compromised, declared open war against the Romans 448(). The Samnites recovered courage; but the prompt reduction of the Hernici allowed the Senate to concentrate its forces. Two
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section VI, Word 375 (Word_ID 16282)
      quarrels for the Republic, and to force the Lucanians to embrace the cause of the Samnites. The successes of the Roman arms led to the conclusion of treaties of peace with all the peoples of Southern Italy, constrained thenceforward to acknowledge
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section VI, Word 400 (Word_ID 16307)
      conclusion of treaties of peace with all the peoples of Southern Italy, constrained thenceforward to acknowledge the majesty of the Roman people. The AEqui remained alone exposed to the wrath of Rome; the Senate did not forget that at Allifae they
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section VI, Word 411 (Word_ID 16318)
      Italy, constrained thenceforward to acknowledge the majesty of the Roman people. The AEqui remained alone exposed to the wrath of Rome; the Senate did not forget that at Allifae they had fought in the ranks of the enemy, and, once freed
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section VI, Word 474 (Word_ID 16381)
      This period of six years thus terminated with the submission of the Hernici and AEqui. Five years less agitated left Rome time to regulate the position of its new subjects, and to establish colonies and ways of communication. The Hernici were
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section VI, Word 597 (Word_ID 16504)
      aequa were concluded with the Marsi, the Peligni, the Marrucini, the Frentani 450(), the Vestini 452(), and the Picentini 455(). Rome treated with Tarentum on a footing of equality, and engaged not to let her fleet pass the Lacinian Promontory to
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section VI, Word 635 (Word_ID 16542)
      Lacinian Promontory to the south of the Gulf of Tarentum. Thus, on the one hand, the territories shared among the Roman citizens; on the other, the number of the municipia were considerably augmented. Further, the Republic had acquired new allies; she
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section VI, Word 674 (Word_ID 16581)
      allies; she possessed at length the passages of the Apennines and commanded both seas. A girdle of Latin fortresses protected Rome and broke the communications between the north and south of Italy; among the Marsi and the AEqui, there were Alba
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section VII, Word 22 (Word_ID 16644)
      VII Fourth Samnite War. Second coalition of the Samnites, Etruscans, Umbrians, and Gauls 456(-464). Peace could not last long: between Rome and the Samnites it was a duel to death. In 456, these latter had already sufficiently recovered from their disasters
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section VII, Word 51 (Word_ID 16673)
      death. In 456, these latter had already sufficiently recovered from their disasters to attempt once more the fortune of arms. Rome sends to the succour of the Lucanians, suddenly attacked, two consular armies. Vanquished at Tifernum by Fabius, at Maleventum by
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section VII, Word 97 (Word_ID 16719)
      devastation of their whole country. Still they do not lose courage; their chief, Gellius Egnatius, conceives a plan which places Rome in great danger. He divides the Samnite army into three bodies: the first remains to defend the country; the second
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section VII, Word 161 (Word_ID 16783)
      Etruscans, the Gauls, and the Umbrians, soon forms a numerous army. The storm roared on all sides, and, while the Roman generals were occupied some in Samnium and others in Campania, despatches arrived from Appius, placed at the head of the
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section VII, Word 212 (Word_ID 16834)
      by the peoples of the north, who were concentrating all their forces in Umbria for the purpose of marching upon Rome. The terror was extreme, but the energy of the Romans was equal to the danger. All able men, even to
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section VII, Word 222 (Word_ID 16844)
      their forces in Umbria for the purpose of marching upon Rome. The terror was extreme, but the energy of the Romans was equal to the danger. All able men, even to the freedmen, were enrolled, and ninety thousand soldiers were raised.
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section VII, Word 307 (Word_ID 16929)
      Fabius defeated another army which had issued from Perusia, and then came to receive the honour of a triumph in Rome. Etruria was subdued 460(), and obtained a truce of forty years. The Samnites still maintained an obstinate struggle of mingled
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section VII, Word 404 (Word_ID 17026)
      son of Fabius a check, which the latter soon retrieved with the assistance of his father. Finally, in 464, two Roman armies re-commenced, in Samnium, a war of extermination, which led for the fourth time to the renewal of the ancient
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section VII, Word 467 (Word_ID 17089)
      territory was put down by Curius Dentatus. Central Italy was conquered. The peace with the Samnites lasted five years 464(-469). Rome extended her frontiers, and fortified those of the peoples placed under her protectorate; and at the same time established new
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section VII, Word 556 (Word_ID 17178)
      commanded at the same time Samnium, Apulia, and Lucania. If, owing to the treaty concluded with the Greek towns, the Roman supremacy extended over the south of the peninsula, to the north the Etruscans could not be reckoned as allies, since
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section VII, Word 619 (Word_ID 17241)
      coast district from the Rubicon to the AEsis was in the power of the Senones; on their southern frontier the Roman colony of Sena Gallica Sinigaglia() was founded; the coast of Picenum was watched by that of Castrum Novum and by
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section VIII, Word 16 (Word_ID 17283)
      SECTION VIII Third coalition of the Etruscans, Gauls, Lucanians, and Tarentines 469(-474). The power of Rome had increased considerably. The Samnites, who hitherto had played the first part, were no longer in a condition to plan
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section VIII, Word 109 (Word_ID 17376)
      Samnites, the Etruscans, and even the Gauls. The north was soon in flames, and Etruria again became the battle-field. A Roman army, which had hastened to relieve Arretium, was put to rout by the Etruscans united with Gaulish mercenaries. The Senones,
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section VIII, Word 137 (Word_ID 17404)
      was put to rout by the Etruscans united with Gaulish mercenaries. The Senones, to whom these belonged, having massacred the Roman ambassadors sent to expostulate on their violation of the treaty with the Republic, the Senate sent against them two legions
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section VIII, Word 194 (Word_ID 17461)
      fate of the Senones, descended immediately into Umbria, and, rallying the Etruscans, prepared to march to renew the sack of Rome; but their march was arrested, and two successive victories, at Lake Vadimo, 471() and Populonia 472(), enabled the Senate to
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section IX, Word 15 (Word_ID 17526)
      SECTION IX Pyrrhus in Italy. Submission of Tarentum 474(-488). Free to the north, the Romans turned their efforts against the south of Italy; war was declared against Tarentum, the people of which had attacked a
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section IX, Word 36 (Word_ID 17547)
      turned their efforts against the south of Italy; war was declared against Tarentum, the people of which had attacked a Roman flotilla. While the consul AEmilius invested the town, the first troops of Pyrrhus, called in by the Tarentines, disembarked in
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section IX, Word 70 (Word_ID 17581)
      called in by the Tarentines, disembarked in the port 474(). This epoch marks a new phase in the destinies of Rome, who is going, for the first time, to measure herself with Greece. Hitherto the legions have never had to combat
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section IX, Word 169 (Word_ID 17680)
      conquering the West. On the news of his arrival at the head of twenty-five thousand soldiers and twenty elephants, the Romans enrolled all citizens capable of bearing arms, even the proletaries; but, admirable example of courage! they rejected the support of
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section IX, Word 292 (Word_ID 17803)
      the legions charged the phalanx, which was on the point of giving way, when the elephants, animals unknown to the Romans, decided the victory in favour of the enemy. A single battle had delivered to Pyrrhus all the south of the
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section IX, Word 395 (Word_ID 17906)
      it impossible so long as Pyrrhus occupied Italian soil, and peace was refused. The king then resolved to march upon Rome through Campania, where his troops made great booty. Laevinus, made prudent by his defeat, satisfied himself with watching the enemy’s
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section IX, Word 452 (Word_ID 17963)
      for a favourable opportunity. This prince, advancing by the Latin Way, had reached Praeneste without obstacle, when, surrounded by three Roman armies, he found himself under the necessity of falling back and retiring into Lucania. Next year, reckoning on finding new
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section IX, Word 532 (Word_ID 18043)
      resistance, he seized the first opportunity of quitting Italy to conquer Sicily 476(-78). During this time, the Senate re-established the Roman domination in Southern Italy, and even seized upon some of the Greek towns, among the rest Locri and Heraclea. Samnium,
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section IX, Word 591 (Word_ID 18102)
      and renew treaties of alliance; on the coast, Tarentum and Rhegium alone remained independent. The Samnites still resisted, and the Roman army encamped in their country in 478 and 479. Meanwhile Pyrrhus returns to Italy, reckoning on arriving in time to
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section IX, Word 661 (Word_ID 18172)
      successors, appears as one of the last efforts of Grecian civilisation expiring at the feet of the rising grandeur of Roman civilisation. The war against the King of Epirus produced two remarkable results: it improved the Romans in military tactics, and
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section IX, Word 677 (Word_ID 18188)
      the rising grandeur of Roman civilisation. The war against the King of Epirus produced two remarkable results: it improved the Romans in military tactics, and introduced between the combatants those mutual regards of civilised nations which teach men to honour their
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section IX, Word 719 (Word_ID 18230)
      to spare the vanquished, and to lay aside wrath when the struggle is ended. The King of Epirus treated his Roman prisoners with great generosity. Cineas, sent to the Senate at Rome, and Fabricius, envoy to Pyrrhus, carried back from their
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section IX, Word 730 (Word_ID 18241)
      struggle is ended. The King of Epirus treated his Roman prisoners with great generosity. Cineas, sent to the Senate at Rome, and Fabricius, envoy to Pyrrhus, carried back from their mission a profound respect for those whom they had combated. In
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section IX, Word 754 (Word_ID 18265)
      to Pyrrhus, carried back from their mission a profound respect for those whom they had combated. In the following years Rome took Tarentum 482(), finally pacified Samnium, and took possession of Rhegium 483(-485). Since the battle of Mount Gaurus, seventy-two years
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section IX, Word 904 (Word_ID 18415)
      in the south of Campania, near the Gulf of Salernum Picentini()(486). In 487, the submission of the Salentines allowed the Romans to seize Brundusium, the most important port of the Adriatic. The Sarsinates were reduced the years following. Finally, Volsinium, a
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section IX, Word 947 (Word_ID 18458)
      Etruria, was again numbered among the allies of the Republic. The Sabines received the right of suffrage. Italy, become henceforth Roman, extended from the Rubicon to the Straits of Messina.
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section X, Word 5 (Word_ID 18472)
      SECTION X Preponderance of Rome. During this period, the conquest of the subjugated countries was ensured by the foundation of colonies. Rome became thus encircled
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section X, Word 22 (Word_ID 18489)
      X Preponderance of Rome. During this period, the conquest of the subjugated countries was ensured by the foundation of colonies. Rome became thus encircled by a girdle of fortresses commanding all the passages which led to Latium, and closing the roads
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section X, Word 68 (Word_ID 18535)
      Gaul. At the opening of the struggle which ended in the conquest of Italy, there were only twenty-seven tribes of Roman citizens; the creation of eight new tribes the( two last in 513) raised finally the number to thirty-five, of which
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section X, Word 95 (Word_ID 18562)
      tribes the( two last in 513) raised finally the number to thirty-five, of which twenty-one were reserved to the old Roman people and fourteen to the new citizens. Of these the Etruscans had four; the Latins, the Volsci, the Ausones, the
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section X, Word 155 (Word_ID 18622)
      citizens could hardly take part in the comitia, and the majority, with its influence, remained with those who dwelt at Rome. After 513, no more tribes were created; those who received the rights of citizens were only placed in the previously
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section X, Word 267 (Word_ID 18734)
      of those of Campania, including the ancient Samnite cities of Venafrum and Allifae, obtained the right of city with suffrage. Rome, towards the end of the fifth century, thus ruled, though in different degrees, the peoples of Italy proper. The Italian
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section X, Word 402 (Word_ID 18869)
      all men capable of bearing arms. The equipment and pay of the troops remained at the charge of the cities; Rome provided for their maintenance during war. The auxiliary infantry was ordinarily equal in number to that of the Romans, the
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section X, Word 421 (Word_ID 18888)
      cities; Rome provided for their maintenance during war. The auxiliary infantry was ordinarily equal in number to that of the Romans, the cavalry double or triple. In exchange for this military assistance, the allies had a right to a part of
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section X, Word 514 (Word_ID 18981)
      over the execution of the orders of the Senate, the equipment of the fleet, and the collection of the farm-rents. Rome reserved to herself exclusively the direction of the affairs of the exterior, and presided alone over the destinies of the
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section X, Word 614 (Word_ID 19081)
      have been in a condition to resist the double pressure of the Gauls and the Carthaginians. The form adopted by Rome to rule Italy was the best possible, but only as a transition form. The object to be aimed at was,
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section X, Word 676 (Word_ID 19143)
      policy of the Camilli and the Fabii. When we consider that the colonies of citizens presented the faithful image of Rome; that the Latin colonies had analogous institutions and laws; and that a great number of Roman citizens and Latin allies
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section X, Word 692 (Word_ID 19159)
      the faithful image of Rome; that the Latin colonies had analogous institutions and laws; and that a great number of Roman citizens and Latin allies were dispersed, in the different countries of the peninsula, over the vast territories ceded as the
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section X, Word 727 (Word_ID 19194)
      the vast territories ceded as the consequence of war, we may judge how rapid must have been the diffusion of Roman manners and the Latin language. If Rome, in later times, had not the wisdom to seize the favourable moment in
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section X, Word 734 (Word_ID 19201)
      of war, we may judge how rapid must have been the diffusion of Roman manners and the Latin language. If Rome, in later times, had not the wisdom to seize the favourable moment in which assimilation, already effected in people’s minds,
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section XI, Word 418 (Word_ID 19740)
      office 488(). The names of many others might be cited, who, then and in later ages, did honour to the Roman Republic; but let us add, that if the ruling class knew how to call to it all the men of
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section XI, Word 751 (Word_ID 20073)
      advance whether or not the laws presented to the comitia were contrary to public and religious law. The ambition of Rome seemed to be without bounds; yet all her wars had for reason or pretext the defence of the weak and
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section XI, Word 1251 (Word_ID 20573)
      to be made prisoners by the enemy are disdained as unworthy of the price of freedom. Surrounded by warlike neighbours, Rome must either triumph or cease to exist; hence her superiority in the art of war, for, as Montesquieu says, in
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section XI, Word 1360 (Word_ID 20682)
      proposes to poison that prince;—hence that religious observance of oaths and that respect for engagements which have been contracted: the Roman prisoners to whom Pyrrhus had given permission to repair to Rome for the festival of Saturn, all return to him
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section XI, Word 1371 (Word_ID 20693)
      that respect for engagements which have been contracted: the Roman prisoners to whom Pyrrhus had given permission to repair to Rome for the festival of Saturn, all return to him faithful to their word; and Regulus leaves the most memorable example
  • Book I, Chapter III, Section XI, Word 1452 (Word_ID 20774)
      people from domestic troubles; gains the vanquished by benefits if they submit, and admits them by degrees into the great Roman family; and, if they resist, strikes them without pity and reduces them to slavery;—hence that anxious provision for multiplying upon
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section I, Word 7 (Word_ID 20842)
      SECTION I Commerce of the Mediterranean. ROME had required two hundred and forty-four years to form her constitution under the kings, a hundred and seventy-two to establish
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section II, Word 486 (Word_ID 21666)
      Polybius could still call her the richest town in the world. Yet she had already paid heavy contributions to the Romans. An excellent system of agriculture contributed no less than her commerce to her prosperity. A great number of agricultural colonies
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section II, Word 530 (Word_ID 21710)
      which, in the time of Agathocles, amounted to more than two hundred. They were ruined by the war 440( of Rome). Byzacena the( southern part of the regency of Tunis) was the granary of Carthage. This province, surnamed Emporia, as being
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section III, Word 227 (Word_ID 22282)
      had still, in the time of Strabo, so numerous a population that it was in this respect inferior only to Rome. The tables of the census showed five hundred citizens of the equestrian order, a number equalled by none of the
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section III, Word 290 (Word_ID 22345)
      horses of Baetica rivalled in renown those of the Asturias. Corduba Cordova(), Hispalis Seville(), where, at a later period, the Romans founded colonies, were already great places of commerce, and had ports for the vessels which ascended the Baetis Guadalquivir(). Spain
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section III, Word 379 (Word_ID 22434)
      mines, in the time of Polybius, gave employment to 40,000 persons, and produced daily 25,000 drachmas. In thirty-two years, the Roman generals carried home from the peninsula considerable sums. The abundance of metals in Spain explains how so great a number
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section III, Word 668 (Word_ID 22723)
      than two hundred towns. Appian, the historian of the Spanish wars, points out the multitude of petty tribes which the Romans had to reduce, and during the campaign of Cn. Scipio, more than a hundred and twenty submitted. Thus the Iberian
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section IV, Word 315 (Word_ID 23073)
      the small Phocaean republic possessed sufficient resources to make itself respected by Carthage; it formed an early alliance with the Romans. Massilian houses had, as early as the fifth century of Rome, established at Syracuse, as they did subsequently at Alexandria,
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section IV, Word 326 (Word_ID 23084)
      by Carthage; it formed an early alliance with the Romans. Massilian houses had, as early as the fifth century of Rome, established at Syracuse, as they did subsequently at Alexandria, factories which show a great commercial activity.
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section V, Word 194 (Word_ID 23294)
      droves of swine in such numbers, that they would have been sufficient, in the time of Strabo, to provision all Rome. The coins of pure gold, which in recent times have been found in Cisalpine Gaul, especially between the Po and
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section V, Word 371 (Word_ID 23471)
      of the Cisalpine territory. The commercial relations entertained by Venetia with Germany, Illyria, and Rhaetia, go back far beyond the Roman epoch, and, at a remote antiquity, it was Venetia which received the amber from the shores of the Baltic. All
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section V, Word 403 (Word_ID 23503)
      the amber from the shores of the Baltic. All the traffic which was afterwards concentrated at Aquileia, founded by the Romans after the submission of the Veneti, had then for its centre the towns of Venetia; and the numerous colonies established
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section V, Word 426 (Word_ID 23526)
      submission of the Veneti, had then for its centre the towns of Venetia; and the numerous colonies established by the Romans in this part of the peninsula are proofs of its immense resources. Moreover, the Veneti, occupied in cultivating their lands
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section V, Word 543 (Word_ID 23643)
      lembi, while their land army counted hardly more than 5,000 men. Illyria was poor, and offered few resources to the Romans, notwithstanding the fertility of its soil. Agriculture was neglected, even in the time of Strabo. Istria contained a population much
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section V, Word 610 (Word_ID 23710)
      are speaking, that high degree of prosperity which she acquired afterwards by the foundation of Tergeste Trieste() and Pola. The Roman conquest delivered the Adriatic from the pirates who infested it, and then only, the ports of Dyrrhachium and Apollonia obtained
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section VI, Word 149 (Word_ID 23882)
      and counted seventy towns, most of them situated in the country of the Molossi.. After the battle of Pydna, the Roman general made so considerable a booty, that, without reckoning the treasury’s share, each foot-soldier received 200 denarii about( 200 francs
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section VII, Word 171 (Word_ID 24093)
      league possessed an army of 10,000 men, and, in the war against Philip, pretended to have contributed more than the Romans to the victory of Cynoscephalae. Greece was still rich in objects of art of all descriptions. When, in 535, the
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section VII, Word 668 (Word_ID 24590)
      served for a field of battle to the armies of Pyrrhus and Antigonus. It remained, until the subjugation by the Romans, one of the finest cities of Greece. Within its territory were the superb temple of Juno, the ancient sanctuary of
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section VII, Word 926 (Word_ID 24848)
      at Corinth, came from Dium in Macedonia. Other towns of Greece were no less rich in works of art. The Romans carried away from the little town of Eretria, at the time of the Macedonian war, a great number of paintings
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section VIII, Word 113 (Word_ID 25093)
      Antigonus sent to Rhodes considerable succours, which furnish the measure of the resources of Macedonia. Towards the year 563 of Rome, Philip had, by wise measures, raised again the importance of Macedonia. He collected in his arsenals materials for equipping three
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section IX, Word 79 (Word_ID 25508)
      autonomy or were placed under the sovereignty of Rhodes. Their extent and limits varied often until the time of the Roman conquest, and several of them passed from one domination to another. All these kingdoms participated in different degrees in the
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section IX, Word 166 (Word_ID 25595)
      of the earth.” The wealth of Asia Minor appears from the amount of impositions paid by it to the different Roman generals. Without speaking of the spoils carried away by Scipio, in his campaign against Antiochus, and by Manlius Volso in
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section X, Word 442 (Word_ID 26105)
      treasures gathered by Tigranes. We can hence understand how Mithridates the Great was able, two centuries later, to oppose the Romans with considerable armies and fleets. He possessed in the Black Sea 400 ships, and his army amounted to 250,000 men
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section XI, Word 30 (Word_ID 26176)
      comprised between the Propontis, the Sangarius, and Paphlagonia, formed a kingdom, which, at the beginning of the sixth century of Rome, was adjacent to Pontus, and comprised several parts of the provinces contiguous to Mysia and Phrygia. In it were found
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section XII, Word 81 (Word_ID 26538)
      and cattle formed the riches of this country. In 566, King Ariarathes paid 600 talents for the alliance of the Romans. Mazaca afterwards( Caesarea), capital of Cappadocia, a town of an entirely Asiatic origin, had been, from a very early period,
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section XIII, Word 38 (Word_ID 26600)
      after the battle of Ipsus, the formation of the kingdom of Pergamus, which, thanks to the interested liberality of the Romans towards Eumenes II., increased continually until the moment when it fell under their sovereignty. To this kingdom belonged Mysia, the
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section XIII, Word 411 (Word_ID 26973)
      armies and fleets which the kings had at their command at the time of the conquest of Greece by the Romans. In 555, Attalus II., and, ten years later, Eumenes II., sent them numerous galleys of five ranks of oars. The
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section XIII, Word 467 (Word_ID 27029)
      not extend over a great territory, yet they had many tributary towns; hence their great wealth and small army. The Romans drew from this country, now nearly barren and unpeopled, immense contributions both in gold and wheat. The magnificence of the
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section XIII, Word 530 (Word_ID 27092)
      Pergamus. It was after the war against Antiochus and the expedition of Manlius that extravagance began to display itself at Rome. Soldiers and generals enriched themselves prodigiously in Asia. The ancient colonies of Ionia and AEolis, such as Clazomenae, Colophon, and
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section XIV, Word 214 (Word_ID 27446)
      by Brutus. Its riches had at an earlier period drawn upon it the same fate from the Persians. Under the Roman dominion, Lycia beheld its population decline gradually; and of the seventy towns which it had possessed, no more than thirty-six
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section XIV, Word 241 (Word_ID 27473)
      gradually; and of the seventy towns which it had possessed, no more than thirty-six remained in the eighth century of Rome. More to the east, the coasts of Cilicia were less favoured; subjugated in turn by the Macedonians, Egyptians, and Syrians,
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section XV, Word 292 (Word_ID 27938)
      that had ever existed. The power of the empire of the Seleucidae went on increasing until the time when the Romans seized upon it. Extending from the Mediterranean to the Oxus and Caucasus, this empire was composed of nearly all the
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section XV, Word 655 (Word_ID 28301)
      extorted from it by Antiochus III. a( thousand talents). The sums which the Syrian monarchs engaged to pay to the Romans were immense. The soil gave produce equal in importance with that of industry. Susiana, one of the provinces of Persia
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section XV, Word 733 (Word_ID 28379)
      furnished abundance of wheat, oil, and wine. The condition of Syria was still so prosperous in the seventh century of Rome, that the philosopher Posidonius represents its inhabitants as indulging in continual festivals, and dividing their time between the labours of
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section XVI, Word 324 (Word_ID 29089)
      ship-building. These riches had accumulated especially at Alexandria, which became, after Carthage, towards the commencement of the seventh century of Rome, the first commercial city in the world. It was fifteen miles in circumference, had three spacious and commodious ports, which
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section XIX, Word 74 (Word_ID 29764)
      which characterises it now had already commenced. Nevertheless, there is every reason to believe that at the time of the Roman conquest, the island was still well peopled. Devoted to piracy, and reduced to sell their services, the Cretans, celebrated as
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section XX, Word 60 (Word_ID 29856)
      a numerous population, and containing three important towns, Lindos, Ialysus, and Camirus, the isle was, in the fifth century of Rome, the first maritime power after Carthage. The town of Rhodes, built during the war of the Peloponnesus 346(), had, like
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section XX, Word 304 (Word_ID 30100)
      the respect of this prince for a magnificent painting of Ialysus, the work of Protogenes. During the campaigns of the Romans in Macedonia and Asia, she furnished them with considerable fleets. Her naval force was maintained until the civil war which
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section XX, Word 517 (Word_ID 30313)
      of the Ionian Sea, the prosperity of which continued until the moment when it fell into the power of the Romans. Corcyra, which received into its port the Roman forces, owed to its fertility and favourable position an extensive commerce. The
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section XX, Word 525 (Word_ID 30321)
      continued until the moment when it fell into the power of the Romans. Corcyra, which received into its port the Roman forces, owed to its fertility and favourable position an extensive commerce. The rival of Corinth since the fourth century, she
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section XXI, Word 30 (Word_ID 30390)
      especially from the colonies which Carthage had planted in it. The population of this island rendered itself formidable to the Romans by its spirit of independence. From 541 to 580, 130,000 men were slain, taken, or sold. The number of these
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section XXI, Word 102 (Word_ID 30462)
      of corn, and numerous herds of cattle, made of this island the second granary of Carthage. The avidity of the Romans soon exhausted it. Yet, in 552, the harvests were still so abundant, that there were merchants who were obliged to
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section XXIII, Word 86 (Word_ID 30657)
      prodigious fertility, was, as may be supposed, coveted by both peoples; it was soon the same in regard to the Romans, and, after the conquest, it became the granary of Italy. The orations of Cicero against Verres show the prodigious quantities
  • Book I, Chapter IV, Section XXIII, Word 137 (Word_ID 30708)
      sum the tenths or taxes amounted, which procured immense profits to the farmers of the revenues. The towns which, under Roman rule, declined, were possessed of considerable importance at the time of which we are speaking. The first among them, Syracuse,
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section I, Word 5 (Word_ID 30942)
      SECTION I Comparison between Rome and Carthage. ROME, having extended her dominion to the southern extremity of Italy, found herself in face of a power
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section I, Word 8 (Word_ID 30945)
      SECTION I Comparison between Rome and Carthage. ROME, having extended her dominion to the southern extremity of Italy, found herself in face of a power which, by the
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section I, Word 83 (Word_ID 31020)
      basin of the Mediterranean in two. She had, during more than two centuries, concluded, from time to time, treaties with Rome, and, with a want of foresight of the future, congratulated the Senate every time it had gained great advantages over
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section I, Word 152 (Word_ID 31089)
      any one to foresee which in the end must be the master. A powerful aristocracy reigned in both; but at Rome the nobles, identified continually with the people, set an example of patriotism and of all civic virtues, while at Carthage
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section I, Word 199 (Word_ID 31136)
      made effeminate by an unbridled luxury, formed a selfish and greedy caste, distinct from the rest of the citizens. At Rome, the sole motive of action was glory, the principal occupation war, and the first duty military service. At Carthage, everything
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section I, Word 253 (Word_ID 31190)
      as an insupportable burden, abandoned to mercenaries. Hence, after a defeat, at Carthage the army was recruited with difficulty; at Rome it immediately recruited itself, because the populace was subject to the recruitment. If the poverty of the treasury caused the
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section I, Word 292 (Word_ID 31229)
      caused the pay of the troops to be delayed, the Carthaginian soldiers mutinied, and placed the State in danger; the Romans supported privations and suffering without a murmur, out of mere love for their country. The Carthaginian religion made of the
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section I, Word 338 (Word_ID 31275)
      power, which required to be appeased by horrible sacrifices or honoured by shameful practices: hence manners depraved and cruel; at Rome, good sense or the interest of the government moderated the brutality of paganism, and maintained in religion the sentiments of
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section I, Word 368 (Word_ID 31305)
      the brutality of paganism, and maintained in religion the sentiments of morality. And, again, what a difference in their policies! Rome had subdued, by force of arms, it is true, the people who surrounded her, but she had, so to say,
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section I, Word 541 (Word_ID 31478)
      centre of support to a revolt. Thus two hundred towns surrendered without resistance to Agathocles immediately he appeared in Africa. Rome, on the contrary, surrounded her colonies with ramparts, and the walls of Placentia, Spoletum, Casilinum, and Nola, contributed to arrest
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section I, Word 569 (Word_ID 31506)
      ramparts, and the walls of Placentia, Spoletum, Casilinum, and Nola, contributed to arrest the invasion of Hannibal. The town of Romulus was at that time in all the vigour of youth, while Carthage had reached that degree of corruption at which
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section I, Word 611 (Word_ID 31548)
      are incapable of supporting either the abuses which enervate them, or the remedy by which they might be regenerated. To Rome then belonged the future. On one hand, a people of soldiers, restrained by discipline, religion, and purity of manners, animated
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section II, Word 124 (Word_ID 31717)
      as the price of their protection; but soon, disgusted with their too exacting allies, they sent to demand succour of Rome under the name of a common nationality, for most of them called themselves Italiots, and consequently allies of the Republic;
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section II, Word 152 (Word_ID 31745)
      for most of them called themselves Italiots, and consequently allies of the Republic; some even were or pretended to be Romans. The Senate hesitated; but public opinion carried the day, and, in spite of the little interest inspired by the Mamertines,
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section II, Word 222 (Word_ID 31815)
      the Carthaginians, and effected a military settlement in the island. Thus commenced the first Punic War. Different circumstances favoured the Romans. The Carthaginians had made themselves objects of hatred to the Sicilian Greeks. The towns still independent, comparing the discipline of
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section II, Word 288 (Word_ID 31881)
      consuls as liberators. Hiero, master of Syracuse, the principal town in Sicily, had no sooner experienced the power of the Roman armies than he foresaw the result of the struggle, and declared for the strongest. His alliance, maintained faithfully during fifty
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section II, Word 321 (Word_ID 31914)
      the strongest. His alliance, maintained faithfully during fifty years, was of great utility to the Republic. With his support, the Romans, at the end of the third year of the war, had obtained possession of Agrigentum and the greater part of
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section II, Word 366 (Word_ID 31959)
      interior; but the fleets of the Carthaginians remained masters of the sea and of the fortresses on the coast. The Romans were deficient in ships of war. They could, no doubt, procure transport vessels, or, by their allies socii( navales), a
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section II, Word 537 (Word_ID 32130)
      of making a final effort for the mastery of the sea. Carthage fitted out three hundred and fifty decked vessels; Rome, three hundred and thirty of equal force. In 498 the two fleets met between Heraclea Minora and the Cape of
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section II, Word 574 (Word_ID 32167)
      and the Cape of Ecnomus, and, in a memorable combat, in which 300,000 men contended, the victory remained with the Romans. The road to Africa was open, and M. Atilius Regulus, inspired, no doubt, by the example of Agathocles, formed the
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section II, Word 688 (Word_ID 32281)
      good general, placed himself at the head of the troops, defeated the consul, and almost totally destroyed his army. The Romans never desponded in their reverses; they carried the war again into Sicily, and recovered Panormus, the head-quarters of the Carthaginian
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section II, Word 736 (Word_ID 32329)
      the two countries ravaged, one the coast of Africa, the other the Italian shores; in the interior of Sicily the Romans had the advantage; on the coast, the Carthaginians. Twice the fleets of the Republic were destroyed by tempests or by
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section II, Word 786 (Word_ID 32379)
      two occasions to suspend all naval warfare. The struggle remained concentrated during six years in a corner of Sicily: the Romans occupied Panormus; the Carthaginians, Lilybaeum and Drepana. It might have been prolonged indefinitely, if the Senate, in spite of the
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section II, Word 890 (Word_ID 32483)
      fact is, that the enormity of her expenses and sacrifices for the last twenty-four years had discouraged Carthage, while at Rome, patriotism, insensible to material losses, maintained the national energy without change. The Carthaginians, obliged to give up all their establishments
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section II, Word 940 (Word_ID 32533)
      that time the whole island, with the exception of the kingdom of Hiero, became tributary, and, for the first time, Rome had a subject province. If, in spite of this definitive success, there were momentary checks, we must attribute them in
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section II, Word 1326 (Word_ID 32919)
      among the Salentini and Falisci were without importance, and appear to have had no connection with the great struggle between Rome and Carthage. This resistance to all attempts at insurrection proves that the government of the Republic was equitable, and that
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section II, Word 1424 (Word_ID 33017)
      of good faith which ensured sincere alliances. The first Punic war exercised a remarkable influence on manners. Until then the Romans had not entertained continuous relations with the Greeks. The conquest of Sicily rendered these relations numerous and active, and whatever
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section II, Word 1465 (Word_ID 33058)
      Hellenic civilisation contained, whether useful or pernicious, made itself felt. The religious ideas of the two peoples were different, although Roman paganism had great affinity with the paganism of Greece. This had its philosophers, its sophists, and its freethinkers. At Rome,
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section II, Word 1485 (Word_ID 33078)
      Roman paganism had great affinity with the paganism of Greece. This had its philosophers, its sophists, and its freethinkers. At Rome, nothing of the sort; there, creeds were profound, simple, and sincere; and, moreover, from a very remote period, the government
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section II, Word 1530 (Word_ID 33123)
      to politics, and had laboured to give it a direction advantageous to the State. The Greeks of Sicily introduced into Rome two sects of philosophy, the germs of which became developed at a later period, and which had perhaps more relation
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section II, Word 1664 (Word_ID 33257)
      the excesses of the mutineers had caused an insurrection among the natives, who drove them out of the country. The Romans did not let this opportunity for intervention escape them; and, as before in the case of the Mamertines, the Senate,
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section II, Word 1818 (Word_ID 33411)
      time afterwards, periodical rebellions testified to the affection of the Sardinians for their old masters. Towards the same epoch, the Romans took possession of Corsica, and, from 516 to 518, repulsed the Ligures and the Gaulish tribes, with whom they had
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section III, Word 65 (Word_ID 33502)
      was destined to have immense consequences. The war of Illyria, in fact, was on the point of opening to the Romans the roads to Greece and Asia, subjected to the successors of Alexander, and where Greek civilisation was dominant. Now become
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section III, Word 90 (Word_ID 33527)
      and Asia, subjected to the successors of Alexander, and where Greek civilisation was dominant. Now become a great maritime power, Rome had henceforward among her attributes the police of the seas. The inhabitants of the eastern coasts of the Adriatic, addicted
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section III, Word 257 (Word_ID 33694)
      was a child, and his mother, Teuta, exercised the regency. This fact alone reveals manners absolutely foreign to Hellenic and Roman civilisation. A chieftain of Pharos Lesina(), named Demetrius, in the pay of Teuta, occupied as a fief the island of
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section III, Word 290 (Word_ID 33727)
      Teuta, occupied as a fief the island of Corcyra Nigra now( Curzola), and exercised the functions of prime minister. The Romans had no difficulty in gaining him; moreover, the Illyrians furnished a legitimate cause of war by assassinating an ambassador of
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section III, Word 374 (Word_ID 33811)
      submitted, entered into an engagement to renounce piracy, surrendered several ports, and agreed to choose Demetrius, the ally of the Romans, for the guardian of their king. By this expedition, the Republic gained great popularity throughout Greece; the Athenians and the
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section III, Word 410 (Word_ID 33847)
      Greece; the Athenians and the Achaian league especially were lavish of thanks, and began from that time to consider the Romans as their protectors against their dangerous neighbours, the kings of Macedonia. As to the Illyrians, the lesson they had received
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section III, Word 510 (Word_ID 33947)
      became the ally or subject of the Republic. In the mean time a new war attracted the attention of the Romans.
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section IV, Word 116 (Word_ID 34063)
      the other side of the Alps a mass of barbarians of the warlike race of the Gesatae. The terror at Rome was great. The same interests animated the peoples of Italy, and the fear of a danger equally threatening for all
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section IV, Word 270 (Word_ID 34217)
      sanguinary struggles, could still furnish 77,000 men. The Gauls penetrated to the centre of Tuscany, and at Fesulae defeated a Roman army; but, intimidated by the unexpected arrival of the consul L. AEmilius coming from Rimini, they retired, when, meeting the
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section IV, Word 381 (Word_ID 34328)
      contributed, nevertheless, to hold it in check. While the north of Italy seemed sufficient to absorb the attention of the Romans, great events were passing in Spain.
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section V, Word 20 (Word_ID 34354)
      SECTION V Second Punic War 536(-552). Carthage, humiliated, had lost the empire of the sea, with Sicily and Sardinia. Rome, on the contrary, had strengthened herself by her conquests in the Mediterranean, in Illyria, and in the Cisalpine. Suddenly the
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section V, Word 57 (Word_ID 34391)
      the Cisalpine. Suddenly the scene changes: the dangers which threatened the African town disappear, Carthage rises from her abasement, and Rome, which had lately been able to count 800,000 men in condition to carry arms, will soon tremble for her own
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section V, Word 276 (Word_ID 34610)
      of the Republic. This last article referred to the Saguntines, who had already had some disputes with the Carthaginians. The Romans affected not to consider them as aborigines, and founded their plea on a legend which represented this people as a
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section V, Word 309 (Word_ID 34643)
      a legend which represented this people as a colony from Ardea, contemporary with the Trojan war. By a similar conduct Rome created allies in Spain to watch her old adversaries, and this time, as in the case of the Mamertines, she
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section V, Word 528 (Word_ID 34862)
      attacking his own allies, the Saguntines had been the aggressors. The people of Saguntum hastened to implore the succour of Rome. The Senate confined itself to despatching commissioners, some to Hannibal, who gave them no attention, and others to Carthage, where
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section V, Word 589 (Word_ID 34923)
      opposed to the Barcas, and the people, as well as the soldiers, elevated by success, breathed nothing but war. The Roman ambassadors, sent to require indemnities, and even to demand the head of Hannibal, were ill received, and returned declaring hostilities
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section V, Word 611 (Word_ID 34945)
      sent to require indemnities, and even to demand the head of Hannibal, were ill received, and returned declaring hostilities unavoidable. Rome prepared for war with her usual firmness and energy. One of the consuls was ordered to pass into Sicily, and
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section V, Word 940 (Word_ID 35274)
      emissaries. In the spring of 537 he entered Etruria, crossed the marshes of the Val di Chiana, and, drawing the Roman army to the neighbourhood of the Lake Trasimenus, into an unfavourable locality, destroyed it almost totally. The terror was great
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section V, Word 962 (Word_ID 35296)
      to the neighbourhood of the Lake Trasimenus, into an unfavourable locality, destroyed it almost totally. The terror was great at Rome; yet the conqueror, after devastating Etruria, and attacking Spoletum in vain, crossed the Apennines, threw himself into Umbria and Picenum,
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section V, Word 1040 (Word_ID 35374)
      assured line of retreat, having behind him the army of Sempronius, what must Hannibal do?—Place the Apennines between himself and Rome, draw nearer to the populations more disposed in his favour, and then, by the conquest of the southern provinces, establish
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section V, Word 1094 (Word_ID 35428)
      the victory of Trasimenus, his position was critical, for, except the Cisalpine Gauls, all the Italiot peoples remained faithful to Rome, and so far no one had come to increase his army. Thus Hannibal remained several months between Casilinum and Arpi,
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section V, Word 1222 (Word_ID 35556)
      amounting to 87,000 men 538(). One of the consuls perished, the other escaped, followed only by a few horsemen. 40,000 Romans had been killed or taken, and Hannibal sent to Carthage a bushel of gold rings taken from the fingers of
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section V, Word 1279 (Word_ID 35613)
      and Bruttium declared for the Carthaginians, while the Greek towns of the south of the peninsula remained favourable to the Romans. About the same time, as an increase of ill fortune, L. Postumus, sent against the Gauls, was defeated, and his
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section V, Word 1305 (Word_ID 35639)
      an increase of ill fortune, L. Postumus, sent against the Gauls, was defeated, and his army cut to pieces. The Romans always showed themselves admirable in adversity; and thus the Senate, by a skilful policy, went to meet the consul Varro,
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section V, Word 1404 (Word_ID 35738)
      had no need of men who allowed themselves to be taken arms in hand. This reply made people report at Rome that the man who possessed power was treated very differently from the humble citizen. The idea of asking for peace
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section V, Word 1600 (Word_ID 35934)
      to thirty days. After the victory of Cannae it would have been more easy for Hannibal to march straight upon Rome than after Trasimenus; yet, since so great a captain did not think this possible to attempt, it is not uninteresting
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section V, Word 1704 (Word_ID 36038)
      to abandon the sieges of Nola, Cumae, and Casilinum. What, then, could be more natural than his hesitation to attack Rome, defended by a numerous population, accustomed to the use of arms? The most striking proof of the genius of Hannibal
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section V, Word 1788 (Word_ID 36122)
      own country, having always to face at least two consular armies, and, lastly, shut up in the peninsula by the Roman fleets, which guarded its coasts to intercept reinforcements from Carthage. His constant thought, therefore, was to make himself master of
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section V, Word 2081 (Word_ID 36415)
      and of circumvallation against the attacks from without. Hannibal, having failed in his attempt to force these latter, marched upon Rome, in the hope of causing the siege of Capua to be raised, and by separating the two consular armies, defeating
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section V, Word 2387 (Word_ID 36721)
      up there five years more, in continual expectation of reinforcements, and only quits Italy when his country, threatened by the Roman legions, already on the African soil, calls him home to her defence. In this war the marine of the two
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section V, Word 2414 (Word_ID 36748)
      calls him home to her defence. In this war the marine of the two nations performed an important part. The Romans strained every nerve to remain masters of the sea; their fleets, stationed at Ostia, Brundusium, and Lilybaeum, kept incessantly the
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section V, Word 2561 (Word_ID 36895)
      laden with stores and troops, was destroyed on the coast of Sicily. We cannot but admire the constancy of the Romans in face of enemies who threatened them on all sides. During the same period they repressed the Cisalpine Gauls and
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section V, Word 2629 (Word_ID 36963)
      after the death of Hiero, had declared against the Republic. It took three years to reduce Syracuse, defended by Archimedes. Rome kept on foot, as long as the Second Punic war lasted, from sixteen to twenty-four legions, recruited only in the
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section V, Word 2756 (Word_ID 37090)
      him, six years before, the powers of proconsul, though he was only twenty-four years of age. On his return to Rome, Scipio, elected consul 549(), passed into Sicily, and from thence to Africa, where, after a campaign of two years, he
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section V, Word 2789 (Word_ID 37123)
      where, after a campaign of two years, he defeated Hannibal in the plains of Zama, and compelled the rival of Rome to sue for peace 552(). The Senate accorded to the conqueror the greatest honour which a Republic can confer upon
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section V, Word 2860 (Word_ID 37194)
      francs [£2,320,000]), and, finally, to enter into the humiliating engagement not to make war in future without the authorisation of Rome.
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VI, Word 219 (Word_ID 37413)
      of eighteen colonies, which furnished men and money. The fear of Hannibal had fortunately given strength to concord, both in Rome and in Italy: no more quarrels between the two orders, no more divisions between the governing and the governed. Sometimes
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VI, Word 521 (Word_ID 37715)
      had overtaken the enemy, but had been recalled before giving battle; Quinctius, retained the greater part of the year at Rome by religious cares, would have pushed the war with sufficient vigour to have entirely terminated it, if he could have
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VI, Word 702 (Word_ID 37896)
      Africa and Spain, two acres of the lands confiscated from the Samnites and Apulians. It was the first time that Rome took foreign troops into her pay, sometimes Celtiberians, at others Cretans sent by Hiero of Syracuse, in fact, mercenaries, and
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VI, Word 745 (Word_ID 37939)
      of discontented Gauls who had abandoned the Carthaginian army. Many of the inhabitants of the allied towns were drawn to Rome, where, in spite of the sacrifices imposed by the wars, commerce and luxury increased. The spoils which Marcellus brought from
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VI, Word 1063 (Word_ID 38257)
      proprietors; this appears from several facts, and, among others, from the hospitality given by a lady of Apulia to 10,000 Roman soldiers, who had escaped from the battle of Cannae, whom she entertained at her own private cost on her own
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VI, Word 1404 (Word_ID 38598)
      of rank or fortune, their legislative power continued to increase as that of the comitia by centuries diminished. Thus the Roman institutions, while appearing to remain the same, were incessantly changing. The political assemblies, the laws of the Twelve Tables, the
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VI, Word 1476 (Word_ID 38670)
      through the force of circumstances. Nevertheless, this appearance of immobility in the midst of progressing society was one advantage of Roman manners. Religious observers of tradition and ancient customs, the Romans did not appear to destroy what they displaced; they applied
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VI, Word 1486 (Word_ID 38680)
      in the midst of progressing society was one advantage of Roman manners. Religious observers of tradition and ancient customs, the Romans did not appear to destroy what they displaced; they applied ancient forms to new principles, and thus introduced innovations without
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VII, Word 20 (Word_ID 38731)
      SECTION VII The Macedonian War 554(). During the second Punic war, Philip III., king of Macedonia, had attacked the Roman settlements in Illyria, invaded several provinces of Greece, and made an alliance with Hannibal. Obliged to check these dangerous aggressions,
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VII, Word 97 (Word_ID 38808)
      553, after the victory of Zama, when this prince again attacked the free cities of Greece and Asia allied to Rome, war was declared against him. The Senate could not forget that at this last battle a Macedonian contingent was found
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VII, Word 133 (Word_ID 38844)
      a Macedonian contingent was found among the Carthaginian troops, and that still there remained in Greece a large number of Roman citizens sold for slaves after the battle of Cannae. Thus from each war was born a new war, and every
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VII, Word 207 (Word_ID 38918)
      those famous towns, the cradles of civilisation. The destinies of Greece could not be a matter of indifference to the Romans, who had borrowed her laws, her science, her literature, and her arts. Sulpicius, appointed to combat Philip, landed on the
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VII, Word 269 (Word_ID 38980)
      Greece with the fleet, caused the siege of Athens to be raised. During two years the war languished, but the Roman fleet, combined with that of Attalus and the Rhodians, remained master of the sea 555(). T. Quinctius Flamininus, raised to
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VII, Word 520 (Word_ID 39231)
      of Greece in general, and of each people in particular: this was the only subject of thought and conversation. The Romans take their place, and the herald, according to custom, advances into the middle of the arena, whence the games are
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VII, Word 560 (Word_ID 39271)
      are announced according to a solemn form. The trumpet sounds, silence is proclaimed, and the herald pronounces these words: The‘ Roman Senate, and S.T Quinctius, imperator, conquerors of Philip and the Macedonians, re-establish in the enjoyment of liberty, their laws, and
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VII, Word 788 (Word_ID 39499)
      their souls, and took from them the feeling of every other pleasure. The“ games ended, the people rush towards the Roman general; everybody is anxious to greet him, to take his hand, to cast before him crowns of flowers and of
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VII, Word 1071 (Word_ID 39782)
      over into Greece with a considerable army. For this the allied Greeks, occupied only with their own interests, reproached the Roman consul with having concluded peace too hastily with Philip, whom, in their opinion, he could have annihilated. But Flamininus replied
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VII, Word 1135 (Word_ID 39846)
      the barbarians of Thrace, Illyria, and Gaul. Meanwhile, accompanied even to their ships by the acclamations of the people, the Roman troops evacuated the cities restored to liberty 560(), and Flamininus returned to a triumph at Rome, bringing with him that
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VII, Word 1151 (Word_ID 39862)
      of the people, the Roman troops evacuated the cities restored to liberty 560(), and Flamininus returned to a triumph at Rome, bringing with him that glorious protectorate of Greece, so long an object of envy to the successors of Alexander.
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VIII, Word 32 (Word_ID 39913)
      had been to make Macedonia a rampart against the Thracians, and Greece herself a rampart against Macedonia. But, though the Romans had freed the Achaean league, they did not intend to create a formidable power or confederation. Then, as formerly, the
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VIII, Word 126 (Word_ID 40007)
      AEtolians, to whose territory the Senate had promised to join Phocis and Locris, coveted the cities of Thessaly, which the Romans obstinately refused them. Thus, although reinstated in the possession of their independence, neither the AEtolians, the Achaeans, nor yet the
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VIII, Word 205 (Word_ID 40086)
      that they might place him at the head of the hegemony, which they sought in vain to obtain from the Romans. The better part of the immense heritage left by Alexander the Great had fallen to this prince. Already, some years
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VIII, Word 248 (Word_ID 40129)
      had given him notice that it belonged to the honour of the Republic not to abandon Greece, of which the Roman people had loudly proclaimed itself the liberator; and that after having delivered it from the yoke of Philip, the Senate
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VIII, Word 319 (Word_ID 40200)
      by engaging him to carry the struggle into Italy, as he himself had done. War was then declared by the Romans. To maintain the independence of Greece against an Asiatic prince was at once to fulfil treaties and undertake the defence
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VIII, Word 360 (Word_ID 40241)
      of civilisation against barbarism. Thus, in proclaiming the most generous ideas, the Republic justified its ambition. The services rendered by Rome were already forgotten. Antiochus thus found numerous allies in Greece, secret or declared. He organised a formidable confederacy, into which
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VIII, Word 401 (Word_ID 40282)
      entered the AEtolians, the Athamanes, the Elians, and the Boeotians, and, having landed at Chalcis, conquered Euboea and Thessaly. The Romans opposed to him the King of Macedonia and the Achaeans. Beaten at Thermopylae, in 563, by the consul Acilius Glabrio,
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VIII, Word 486 (Word_ID 40367)
      for his lieutenant, went in 564 to seek him out in his own territory. Philip favoured the passage of the Roman army, which crossed Macedonia, Thrace, and the Hellespont without difficulty. The victories gained at Myonnesus by sea, and at Magnesia
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VIII, Word 571 (Word_ID 40452)
      a province, exacted only just and moderate conditions. All the Greek towns of that country were declared free, and the Romans only occupied certain important points, and enriched their allies at the expense of Syria. The King of Pergamus and the
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section VIII, Word 597 (Word_ID 40478)
      and enriched their allies at the expense of Syria. The King of Pergamus and the Rhodian fleet had seconded the Roman army. Eumenes II., the successor of Attalus I., saw his kingdom increased; Rhodes obtained Lycia and Caria; Ariarathes, king of
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section IX, Word 193 (Word_ID 40702)
      of their territory, they retired towards the Danube in 564, and three years afterwards Cisalpine Gaul was formed into a Roman province. As to the Ligures, they maintained a war of desperation to the end of the century. Their resistance was
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section IX, Word 216 (Word_ID 40725)
      to the Ligures, they maintained a war of desperation to the end of the century. Their resistance was such that Rome was obliged to meet it with measures of excessive rigour; and in 574, more than 47,000 Ligures were transported into
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section IX, Word 320 (Word_ID 40829)
      adopted, and especially applied to the south of Italy and the Cisalpine. In achieving the submission of this last province, Rome had put an end to other less important wars. In 577 she reduced the Istrians; in 579, the Sardinians and
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section X, Word 39 (Word_ID 40911)
      the peoples of Asia subdued, and the greater part of Greece restored to liberty. Profiting by its co-operation with the Romans against Antiochus, the Achaean league had largely increased, and Philopoemen had brought into it Sparta, Messene, and the island of
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section X, Word 95 (Word_ID 40967)
      it. Thus was realised the prediction of Philip, who told the Thessalian envoys, after the battle of Cynoscephalae, that the Romans would soon repent of having given liberty to peoples incapable of enjoying it, and whose dissensions and jealousies would always
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section X, Word 132 (Word_ID 41004)
      and jealousies would always keep up a dangerous agitation. In fact, Sparta and Messene rebelled, and sued for help from Rome. Philopoemen, after having cruelly punished the first of these cities, perished in his struggle with the second. Thessaly and AEtolia
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section X, Word 192 (Word_ID 41064)
      new adversary came to imprudently attract its wrath. One would say that Fortune, while raising up so many enemies against Rome, took pleasure in delivering them, one after the other, into her hands. The old legend of Horatius killing the three
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section X, Word 261 (Word_ID 41133)
      his army and his resources, to make allies, and to rouse up the kings and peoples of the East against Rome. Besides the warlike population of his own country, he had at his beck barbarous peoples like the Illyrians, the Thracians,
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section X, Word 379 (Word_ID 41251)
      the Greeks. Eumenes II., king of Pergamus, who, like his father Attalus I., feared the encroachments of Macedonia, denounced at Rome this infraction of the old treaties. The fear with which a powerful prince inspired him, and the gratitude which he
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section X, Word 422 (Word_ID 41294)
      the Republic for the aggrandisement of his kingdom after the Asian war, obliged him to cultivate the friendship of the Roman people. In 582 he came to Rome, and, honourably received by the Senate, forgot nothing which might excite it against
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section X, Word 429 (Word_ID 41301)
      kingdom after the Asian war, obliged him to cultivate the friendship of the Roman people. In 582 he came to Rome, and, honourably received by the Senate, forgot nothing which might excite it against Perseus, whom he accused of ambitious designs
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section X, Word 528 (Word_ID 41400)
      Bold in planning, Perseus displayed cowardice when it was necessary to act. After having from the first haughtily rejected the Roman claims, he waited in Thessaly for their army, which, ill-commanded and ill-organised, was beaten by his lieutenants and repulsed into
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section X, Word 579 (Word_ID 41451)
      then offered peace to P. Licinius Crassus; but, notwithstanding his check, the consul replied, with all the firmness of the Roman character, that peace was only possible if Perseus would abandon his person and his kingdom to the discretion of the
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section X, Word 624 (Word_ID 41496)
      much assurance, the king recalled his troops, and suffered the enemy to effect his retreat undisturbed. The incapacity of the Roman generals, however, their violences, and the want of discipline among the soldiers, had alienated the Greeks, who naturally preferred a
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section X, Word 666 (Word_ID 41538)
      of their own race to a foreign captain; moreover, they did not see the Macedonians get the better of the Romans without a certain satisfaction. In their eyes, it was the Hellenic civilisation overthrowing the presumption of the Western barbarians. The
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section X, Word 698 (Word_ID 41570)
      civilisation overthrowing the presumption of the Western barbarians. The campaigns of 584 and 585 were not more fortunate for the Roman arms. A consul had the rash idea of invading Macedonia by the passes of Callipeuce, where his army would have
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section X, Word 743 (Word_ID 41615)
      king had had the courage to defend himself. At the approach of the legions he took to flight, and the Romans escaped from their perilous position without loss. At length, the people, feeling the necessity of having an eminent man at
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section X, Word 849 (Word_ID 41721)
      Macedonia, made him offers of alliance; he chaffered with them with the most inexplicable levity. In the mean time, the Roman army, ably conducted, advanced by forced marches. One single combat terminated the war; and the battle of Pydna, in 586,
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section X, Word 877 (Word_ID 41749)
      One single combat terminated the war; and the battle of Pydna, in 586, once more proved the superiority of the Roman legion over the phalanx. This, however, did not yield ingloriously; and, though abandoned by their king, who fled, the Macedonian
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section X, Word 927 (Word_ID 41799)
      this defeat, Eumenes and the Rhodians hastened to wipe out the remembrance of their ever having doubted the fortune of Rome by the swiftness of their repentance. At the same time, L. Anicius conquered Illyria and seized the person of Gentius.
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section X, Word 1107 (Word_ID 41979)
      Macedonians and Illyrians, to prove to the whole universe that, in carrying their arms so far, the object of the Romans was to deliver the enslaved peoples, not to enslave the free peoples; to guarantee to these last their independence, to
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section X, Word 1166 (Word_ID 42038)
      wars which might break out between the Republic and their sovereigns, the result would be the liberty of the peoples: Rome reserving to herself only the honour of victory.” Greece, and above all Epirus, sacked by Paulus AEmilius, underwent the penalty
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section X, Word 1221 (Word_ID 42093)
      nearly a thousand of the principal citizens, guilty or suspected of having favoured the Macedonians, were sent as hostages to Rome.
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XI, Word 5 (Word_ID 42098)
      SECTION XI Modification of Roman policy. In carrying her victorious arms through almost all the borders of the Mediterranean, the Republic had hitherto obeyed either
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XI, Word 100 (Word_ID 42193)
      of the Cisalpine, that she might ensure the safety of her frontiers. As to the expeditions of Macedonia and Asia, Rome had been drawn into them by the conduct of foreign kings, their violation of treaties, their guilty plottings, and their
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XI, Word 198 (Word_ID 42291)
      the kings all the glory of the throne, and to the nations their laws and liberties, she had reduced to Roman provinces only a part of Spain, Sicily, Sardinia, and Cisalpine Gaul. In Sicily she preserved the most intimate alliance with
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XI, Word 393 (Word_ID 42486)
      his sister Cleopatra. Finally, when all the kings came after the victory of Pydna to offer their congratulations to the Roman people, and to implore their protection, the Senate regulated their demands with extreme justice. Eumenes, himself an object of suspicion,
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XI, Word 419 (Word_ID 42512)
      protection, the Senate regulated their demands with extreme justice. Eumenes, himself an object of suspicion, sent his brother Attalus to Rome; and he, willing to profit by the favourable impression he had made, thought to ask for him a part of
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XI, Word 467 (Word_ID 42560)
      to give up the design. The Senate restored his son to Cotys, king of Thrace, without ransom, saying that the Roman people did not make a traffic of their benefits. Finally, in the disputes between Prusias, king of Bithynia, and the
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XI, Word 550 (Word_ID 42643)
      war against Persia from the third Punic war? Because too much success dazzles nations as well as kings. When the Romans began to think that nothing could resist them in the future because nothing had resisted them in the past, they
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XI, Word 701 (Word_ID 42794)
      curb individual ambitions; and the same institutions which formerly brought forth the virtues, now only protected the vices of aggrandised Rome. The generals dared no longer to obey; thus, the consul Cn. Manlius attacks the Gallo-graecians in Asia without the orders
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XI, Word 777 (Word_ID 42870)
      the praetor Furius, on his own authority, disarms one of the peoples of Cisalpine Gaul, the Cenomani, at peace with Rome; Popilius Laenas attacks the Statiellates without cause, and sells ten thousand of them; others also oppress the peoples of Spain.
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XI, Word 1218 (Word_ID 43311)
      the impulses of those choice natures which early reveal themselves, and the exceptional elevation of which had so often saved Rome from the greatest disasters. Have we not seen, for example, in 406, Marcus Valerius Corvus, raised to the consulate at
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XI, Word 1419 (Word_ID 43512)
      kissed his wife before his daughter in open daylight; he took pleasure in regulating the toilette and extravagance of the Roman ladies; and, by an exaggerated disinterestedness, he sold his horse when he quitted Spain, to save the Republic the cost
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XI, Word 1563 (Word_ID 43656)
      Greece had brought to Italy her literature, her arts, her science, her eloquence; and when, in 597, there came to Rome three celebrated philosophers—Carneades the Academician, Diogenes the Stoic, and Critolaus the Peripatetic—as ambassadors from Athens, they produced an immense sensation.
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XI, Word 1629 (Word_ID 43722)
      the culture of letters, minds still rude and unformed. Cato alone, inexorable, pretended that these arts would soon corrupt the Roman youth, and destroy its taste for arms; and he caused these philosophers to be dismissed. Sent to Africa as arbiter
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XI, Word 1795 (Word_ID 43888)
      error of the wicked.” Cato, by persecuting with his accusations the principal citizens, and, among others, Scipio Africanus, taught the Romans to doubt virtue. By exaggeration in his attacks, and by delivering his judgments with passion, he caused his justice to
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XI, Word 1945 (Word_ID 44038)
      arrogant line of action, and a system of extermination. Towards the beginning of the seventh century, everything disappears before the Roman power. The independence of peoples, kingdoms, and republics ceases to exist. Carthage is destroyed, Greece gives up her arms, Macedonia
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XII, Word 147 (Word_ID 44222)
      by those men who in troublous times speculate on the passions of the mob, breaks out in insurrection, insults the Roman envoys, and expels the chief citizens. A fatal insurrection; for in moments of external crisis all popular movements ruin a
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XII, Word 189 (Word_ID 44264)
      as all political change is fatal in the presence of a foreigner invading the soil of the fatherland. However, the Roman Senate judged it best to temporise, because of the war in Spain, where Scipio AEmilianus then served in the capacity
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XII, Word 242 (Word_ID 44317)
      the war against the Celtiberians, he witnessed a sanguinary defeat of the Carthaginian army. This event decided the question of Roman intervention; the Senate, in fact, had no intention of leaving the entire sovereignty of Africa to the Numidian king, whose
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XII, Word 278 (Word_ID 44353)
      to the Numidian king, whose possessions already extended from the ocean to Cyrene. In vain did Carthage send ambassadors to Rome to explain her conduct. They obtained no satisfaction. Utica yielded to the Romans 604(), and the two consuls, L. Marcius
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XII, Word 291 (Word_ID 44366)
      In vain did Carthage send ambassadors to Rome to explain her conduct. They obtained no satisfaction. Utica yielded to the Romans 604(), and the two consuls, L. Marcius Censorinus, and M. Manlius Nepos, arrived there at the head of 80,000 men
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XII, Word 401 (Word_ID 44476)
      70,000 men in his camp at Nepheris, and gives the consuls reason to fear the success of their enterprise. The Roman army met with a resistance it was far from expecting. Endangered by Manlius, it was saved by the tribune, Scipio
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XII, Word 433 (Word_ID 44508)
      by Manlius, it was saved by the tribune, Scipio AEmilianus, on whom all eyes were turned. On his return to Rome, he was in 607 elected consul at the age of thirty-six years, and charged with the direction of the war,
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XII, Word 687 (Word_ID 44762)
      the citizens rushed out into the streets embracing and congratulating each other on so joyful a victory. Now only did Rome feel herself free from all fear, and the mistress of the world. Nevertheless, the destruction of Carthage was a crime
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XIII, Word 29 (Word_ID 44821)
      to Provinces. The same year saw the destruction of the Greek autonomy. Since the war with Persia, the preponderance of Roman influence had maintained order in Achaia; but on the return of the hostages, in 603, coincident with the troubles of
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XIII, Word 97 (Word_ID 44889)
      it did not hesitate to punish by destruction and pillage. Sparta soon rebelled, and Peloponnesus was all in flames. The Romans made vain efforts to allay this general disturbance. The envoys of the Senate carried a decree to Corinth, which detached
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XIII, Word 140 (Word_ID 44932)
      league Sparta, Argos, Orchomenus, and Arcadia. On hearing this, the Achaeans massacred the Lacedaemonians then at Corinth, and loaded the Roman commissioners with insults. Before using severity, the Roman Senate resolved to make one appeal to conciliation; but the words of
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XIII, Word 148 (Word_ID 44940)
      this, the Achaeans massacred the Lacedaemonians then at Corinth, and loaded the Roman commissioners with insults. Before using severity, the Roman Senate resolved to make one appeal to conciliation; but the words of the new envoys were not listened to. The
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XIII, Word 182 (Word_ID 44974)
      new envoys were not listened to. The Achaean league, united with Euboea and Boeotia, then dared to declare war against Rome, which they knew to be occupied in Spain and Africa. The league was soon vanquished at Scarphia, in Locris, by
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XIII, Word 235 (Word_ID 45027)
      Achaean league were treated rigorously; Corinth was sacked; and Greece, under the name of Achaia, remained in subjection to the Romans 608(). However, Mummius, as Polybius himself avows, showed as much moderation as disinterestedness after the victory. He preserved in their
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XIII, Word 358 (Word_ID 45150)
      there, slew the praetor Juventius Thalna, and formed an alliance with the Carthaginians. Beaten by Metellus, he was sent to Rome loaded with chains. Some years later, a second impostor having also endeavoured to seize the succession of Perseus, the Senate
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XIII, Word 383 (Word_ID 45175)
      years later, a second impostor having also endeavoured to seize the succession of Perseus, the Senate reduced Macedonia to a Roman province 612(). It was the same with Illyria after the submission of the Ardaei 618(). Never had so many triumphs
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XIII, Word 512 (Word_ID 45304)
      Galba 603(). But this last, by an act of infamous treachery, massacred thirty thousand prisoners. Prosecuted for this act at Rome by Cato, he was acquitted. Subsequently, another consul showed no less perfidy: Licinius Lucullus, having entered the town of Cauca,
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XIII, Word 598 (Word_ID 45390)
      and from a shepherd had become a general, began a war of partisans, and, for five years, having vanquished the Roman generals, ended by rousing the Celtiberians. Whilst these occupied Metellus the Macedonian, Fabius, left alone against Viriathus, was hemmed into
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XIII, Word 648 (Word_ID 45440)
      The murder of Viriathus left the issue of the war no longer doubtful. This death was too advantageous to the Romans not to be imputed to Caepio, successor to his brother Fabius. But when the murderers came to demand the wages
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XIII, Word 677 (Word_ID 45469)
      his brother Fabius. But when the murderers came to demand the wages of their crime, they were told that the Romans had never approved of the massacre of a general by his soldiers. The Lusitanians, however, submitted, and the legions penetrated
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XIII, Word 789 (Word_ID 45581)
      for Tiberius Gracchus, his questor, who had guaranteed the treaty; but, through the favour of the people, he remained at Rome. The Numantines still resisted for a long time with rare energy. The conqueror of Carthage himself had to go to
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XIII, Word 895 (Word_ID 45687)
      all peoples to subjection. Attalus III., a monster of cruelty and folly, had, when dying, bequeathed his kingdom to the Roman people, who sent troops to take possession of it; but a natural son of Eumenes, Aristonicus, raised the inhabitants, and
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XIII, Word 942 (Word_ID 45734)
      avenged by one of his successors. Aristonicus was taken, and the kingdom, pacified, passed by the name of Asia under Roman domination 625().
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XIV, Word 59 (Word_ID 45795)
      Italy itself. In fact, Appian tells us that the proconsuls exercised their authority in certain countries of the peninsula. The Roman provinces were nine in number:—1 Cisalpine Gaul. 2. Farther Spain. 3. Nearer Spain. 4. Sardinia and Corsica. 5. Sicily. 6.
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XIV, Word 328 (Word_ID 46064)
      to one or two orders.” It is curious to see a tyrant of Greece give lessons in democracy to a Roman. In reality, notwithstanding the changes introduced into the comitia, the bearing of which is difficult to explain, the nobility preserved
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XIV, Word 372 (Word_ID 46108)
      the habit of addressing the people only after having taken the sense of the Senate, was still persisted in. The Roman government, always aristocratic, became more oppressive in proportion as the State increased in extent, and it lost in influence what
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XIV, Word 584 (Word_ID 46320)
      By the Portian laws of 557 and 559, it was forbidden to strike with rods, or put to death, a Roman citizen, before the people had pronounced upon his doom. And yet Scipio AEmilianus, to evade this law, caused his auxiliaries
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XIV, Word 744 (Word_ID 46480)
      its foundations. We have just related the principal events of a period of one hundred and thirty-three years, during which Rome displayed an energy which no nation has ever equalled. On all sides, and almost at the same time, she has
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XIV, Word 884 (Word_ID 46620)
      Greece, her isles, Asia Minor up to Mount Taurus, all this country, the cradle of civilisation, has entered into the Roman empire. The rest of Asia receives her laws and obeys her influence. Egypt, the most powerful of the kingdoms which
  • Book I, Chapter V, Section XIV, Word 926 (Word_ID 46662)
      part of the heritage of Alexander, is under her tutelage. The Jews implore her alliance. The Mediterranean has become a Roman lake. The Republic vainly seeks an adversary worthy of her arms. But if from without no serious danger seems to
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section I, Word 190 (Word_ID 46891)
      the best cause. As long as Carthage existed, like a man who is on his guard before a dangerous rival, Rome showed an anxiety to maintain the purity and wisdom of her ancient principles; but Carthage fallen, Greece subjugated, the kings
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section I, Word 249 (Word_ID 46950)
      unlimited power. Sallust draws the following picture of the state of society: When“, freed from the fear of Carthage, the Romans had leisure to give themselves up to their dissensions, then there sprang up on all sides troubles, seditions, and at
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section I, Word 486 (Word_ID 47187)
      of the national character. There had taken place an exchange of populations, ideas, and customs. On the one hand, the Romans, whether soldiers, traders, or farmers of the revenues, in spreading themselves abroad in crowds all over the world, had felt
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section I, Word 545 (Word_ID 47246)
      the Greeks, flowing into Italy, had brought, along with their perfection in the arts, contempt for the ancient institutions. The Romans had undergone an influence which may be compared with that which was exercised over the French of the fifteenth and
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section I, Word 656 (Word_ID 47357)
      hundred and sixty-nine years, bear witness to the difference of morals at the two periods. Cineas, sent by Pyrrhus to Rome, with rich presents, to obtain peace, finds nobody open to corruption 474(). Struck with the majesty and patriotism of the
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section I, Word 693 (Word_ID 47394)
      and patriotism of the senators, he compares the Senate to an assembly of kings. Jugurtha, on the contrary, coming to Rome 643() to plead his cause, finds his resources quickly exhausted in buying everybody’s conscience, and, full of contempt for that
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section I, Word 836 (Word_ID 47537)
      And, lastly, the allies were weary of contributing to the greatness of the empire, without participating in the rights of Roman citizens. There were, as we have seen, two peoples, quite distinct: the people of the allies and subjects, and the
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section I, Word 859 (Word_ID 47560)
      were, as we have seen, two peoples, quite distinct: the people of the allies and subjects, and the people of Rome. The allies were always in a state of inferiority; their contingents, more considerable than those of the metropolis, received only
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section I, Word 952 (Word_ID 47653)
      feelings of their own dignity and the services they had rendered, they should aspire to be treated as equals. The Roman people, properly so named, occupying a limited territory, from Caere to Cumae, preserved all the pride of a privileged class.
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section I, Word 1042 (Word_ID 47743)
      of Italy, but the great majority of the Italiotes were deprived of political rights, and at the very gates of Rome there still remained disinherited cities, such as Tibur, Praeneste, Signia, and Norba. The richest citizens, in sharing among them the
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section I, Word 1360 (Word_ID 48061)
      declared himself unable to furnish a military contingent, because all the young adults had been carried away for slaves by Roman collectors. In the great market of Delos, 10,000 slaves were sold and embarked in one day for Italy. The excessive
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section I, Word 1476 (Word_ID 48177)
      marrying a free woman, or of serving in the legions, unless in case of extreme danger. Sometimes admitted into the Roman communalty, sometimes rejected; veritable mulattoes of ancient times, they participated in two natures, and bore always the stigma of their
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section I, Word 1515 (Word_ID 48216)
      of their origin. Confined to the urban tribes, they had, with the proletaries, augmented that part of the population of Rome for which the conqueror of Carthage and Numantia often showed a veritable disdain: Silence“!” he shouted one day, you“ whom
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section I, Word 1721 (Word_ID 48422)
      which had made them capable of filling all offices, so that it might be said that there existed then at Rome an aristocracy without nobility, and a democracy without people. There were, then, injustices to redress, exigencies to satisfy, and abuses
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section II, Word 182 (Word_ID 48752)
      distribute the public domain among the poor. The people themselves demanded the concession with great outcries, and the walls of Rome were daily covered with inscriptions calling for it. Tiberius, in a speech to the people, pointed out eloquently all the
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section II, Word 208 (Word_ID 48778)
      calling for it. Tiberius, in a speech to the people, pointed out eloquently all the germs of destruction in the Roman power, and traced the picture of the deplorable condition of the citizens spread over the territory of Italy without an
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section II, Word 396 (Word_ID 48966)
      to them for ever; the part confiscated should be divided into lots of thirty jugera and farmed hereditarily, either to Roman citizens, or to Italiote auxiliaries, on condition of a small rent to the treasury, and with an express prohibition to
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section II, Word 559 (Word_ID 49129)
      Appius Claudius. Upon another proposition, he obtained a decision that the money left by the King of Pergamus to the Roman people should be employed for the expenses of establishing those who were to receive the lands. The agrarian law had
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section II, Word 680 (Word_ID 49250)
      assassination of Tiberius. In fact, as Machiavelli says: Men“ value riches even more than honours, and the obstinacy of the Roman aristocracy in defending its possessions constrained the people to have recourse to extremities.” The chiefs of the opposition, great landholders,
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section II, Word 1253 (Word_ID 49823)
      protesting against the partition of the lands, knowing well that it would be less favourable to them than to the Romans. The struggles which had preceded had so excited men’s passions, that each party, as the opportunity occurred, presented laws the
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section II, Word 1299 (Word_ID 49869)
      At one time, on the motion of the tribune Junius Pennus, it is a question of expelling all foreigners from Rome 628(), in order to deprive the party of the people of auxiliaries; at another, on that of M. Fulvius, the
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section III, Word 36 (Word_ID 50050)
      deposit, the ideas of his brother and the desire to revenge him. After serving in twelve campaigns, he returned to Rome to solicit the tribuneship. On his arrival, the nobles trembled, and, to combat his ascendency, they accused him of being
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section III, Word 83 (Word_ID 50097)
      but his name brought him numerous sympathies. On the day of his election, a vast crowd of citizens arrived in Rome from all parts of Italy, and so great was the confluence that the Campus Martius could not hold them; and
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section III, Word 335 (Word_ID 50349)
      the commissioners charged with its execution their judicial powers, which had fallen into disuse. Long and wide roads, starting from Rome, placed the metropolis in easy communication with the different countries of Italy.
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section C, Word 70 (Word_ID 50431)
      Senate should assign, before the election of the consuls, the provinces which they should administrate. To elevate the title of Roman citizen, the dispositions of the law Porcia were put in force again, and it was forbidden not only to pronounce
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section C, Word 95 (Word_ID 50456)
      the law Porcia were put in force again, and it was forbidden not only to pronounce capital punishment on a Roman citizen, except in case of high treason perduellio(), but even for this offence to apply it without the ratification of
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section C, Word 303 (Word_ID 50664)
      then took in farm the rents and tithes of those countries, of which the soil belonged of right to the Roman people; the old proprietors were reduced to the condition of simple tenants. Finally, Caius gave the knights a share in
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section C, Word 622 (Word_ID 50983)
      enjoying Latin rights should be admitted to the right of city. Drusus caused it to be declared that, like the Roman citizens, they should no longer be subject to be beaten with rods. According to the law of the Gracchi, the
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section C, Word 796 (Word_ID 51157)
      the bitter enemy of the Gracchi, offered himself for the consulship. Informed of these different intrigues, Caius returned suddenly to Rome to solicit a third renewal of the tribuneship. He failed, while Opimius, elected consul, with the prospect of combating a
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section C, Word 829 (Word_ID 51190)
      elected consul, with the prospect of combating a party so redoubtable to the nobles, caused all citizens who were not Romans to be banished from the town, and, under a religious pretext, attempted to obtain the revocation of the decree relating
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section IV, Word 13 (Word_ID 51651)
      SECTION IV War of Jugurtha 637(). An arrogant oligarchy had triumphed in Rome over the popular party: will it have at least the energy to raise again the honour of the Roman name
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section IV, Word 32 (Word_ID 51670)
      in Rome over the popular party: will it have at least the energy to raise again the honour of the Roman name abroad? Such will not be the case: events, of which Africa is on the point of becoming the theatre,
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section IV, Word 89 (Word_ID 51727)
      virtues of their ancestors. Jugurtha, natural son of Mastanabal, king of Numidia, by a concubine, had distinguished himself in the Roman legions at the siege of Numantia. Reckoning on the favour he enjoyed at Rome, he had resolved to seize the
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section IV, Word 103 (Word_ID 51741)
      concubine, had distinguished himself in the Roman legions at the siege of Numantia. Reckoning on the favour he enjoyed at Rome, he had resolved to seize the inheritance of Micipsa, to the prejudice of the two legitimate children, Hiempsal and Adherbal.
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section IV, Word 143 (Word_ID 51781)
      Adherbal. The first was murdered by his orders, and, in spite of this crime, Jugurtha had succeeded in corrupting the Roman commissioners charged with the task of dividing the kingdom between him and Adherbal, and in obtaining from them the larger
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section IV, Word 230 (Word_ID 51868)
      in the shade. The consul, on his return, was attacked by C. Memmius, who, in forcing Jugurtha to come to Rome to give an account of himself, seized the occasion of reminding his hearers of the grievances of the people and
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section IV, Word 279 (Word_ID 51917)
      the following words:— After“ the assassination of Tiberius Gracchus, who, according to the nobles, aspired to the kingly power, the Roman people saw itself exposed to their vigorous persecutions. Similarly, after the murder of Caius Gracchus and Marcus Fulvius, how many
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section IV, Word 648 (Word_ID 52286)
      such an accumulation of corruptions, when, having caused a dangerous rival, Massiva, the grandson of Masinissa, to be assassinated at Rome, he became the object of public reprobation, and was compelled to return to Africa. War then re-commences; the consul Albinus
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section IV, Word 677 (Word_ID 52315)
      was compelled to return to Africa. War then re-commences; the consul Albinus lets it drag on in length. Recalled to Rome to hold the comitia, he entrusts the command to his brother, the propraetor Aulus, whose army, soon seduced by Jugurtha,
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section IV, Word 715 (Word_ID 52353)
      seduced by Jugurtha, lets itself be surrounded, and is under the necessity of making a dishonourable capitulation. The indignation at Rome is at its height. On the proposal of a tribune, an inquiry is opened against all the presumed accomplices in
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section V, Word 766 (Word_ID 53225)
      they dragged with them different peoples, and during some years devastated Gaul; returned in 645 to the neighbourhood of the Roman province, they demanded of the Republic lands to settle in. The consular army sent to meet them was defeated, and
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section V, Word 1010 (Word_ID 53469)
      for some time the barbarians from the frontiers of the Republic. Consul for the sixth time 654(), the saviour of Rome and Italy, by a generous deference, would not triumph without his colleague Catulus, and did not hesitate to exceed his
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section V, Word 1427 (Word_ID 53886)
      the courage which they had shown in the battle-fields of Aquae Sextiae and Vercellae, gave them new claims to become Romans. Yet, if some prudent politicians believed that the time was arrived for yielding to the wishes of the Italiotes, a
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section V, Word 1472 (Word_ID 53931)
      revolted at the idea of such a concession. The more the privileges of the citizens became extended, the more the Roman pride resisted the thought of having sharers in them. M. Livius Drusus 663(), tribune of the people, son of the
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section V, Word 1501 (Word_ID 53960)
      them. M. Livius Drusus 663(), tribune of the people, son of the Drusus already mentioned, having under his command in Rome an immense body of clients, the acknowledged patron of all the Italiote cities, dared to attempt this salutary reform, and
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section V, Word 1646 (Word_ID 54105)
      Drusus was assassinated. All Italy accused the senators of this crime, and war became inevitable. The obstinate refusal of the Romans to share with the Italiotes all their political rights, had been long a cause of political agitation. More than two
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section V, Word 1771 (Word_ID 54230)
      own hand the first Latin he should see in the curia;” a striking proof of this secular resistance of the Roman aristocracy to everything which might threaten its supremacy. But, after this epoch, the ideas of equality had assumed a power
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VI, Word 56 (Word_ID 54312)
      country with blood and ruins. Three hundred thousand citizens, the choice of the nation, perished on the field of battle. Rome had the superiority, it is true, and yet it was the cause of the vanquished which triumphed, since, after the
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VI, Word 142 (Word_ID 54398)
      accomplished under Caesar. The revolt burst out fortuitously before the day fixed. It was provoked by the violence of a Roman magistrate, who was massacred by the inhabitants of Asculum; but all was ready for an insurrection, which was not long
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VI, Word 187 (Word_ID 54443)
      The allies had a secret government, chiefs appointed, and an army organised. At the head of the peoples confederated against Rome were distinguished the Marsi and the Samnites; the first excited rather by a feeling of national pride than by the
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VI, Word 228 (Word_ID 54484)
      memory of injuries to be revenged; the second, on the contrary, by the hatred which they had vowed against the Romans during long struggles for their independence—struggles renewed on the invasion of Hannibal. Both shared the honour of the supreme command.
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VI, Word 266 (Word_ID 54522)
      the supreme command. It appears, moreover, that the system of government adopted by the confederation was a copy of the Roman institutions. To substitute Italy for Rome, and to replace the denomination of a single town by that of a great
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VI, Word 272 (Word_ID 54528)
      that the system of government adopted by the confederation was a copy of the Roman institutions. To substitute Italy for Rome, and to replace the denomination of a single town by that of a great people, was the avowed aim of
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VI, Word 533 (Word_ID 54789)
      to destroy rather than to subdue. The Senate displayed more humanity, or more policy, in granting spontaneously the right of Roman city to all the allies who remained faithful to the Republic, and in promising it to all those who should
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VI, Word 629 (Word_ID 54885)
      of despair. The emancipation of Italy was accompanied, nevertheless, with a restrictive measure which was designed to preserve to the Romans the preponderance in the comitia. To the thirty-five old tribes, eight new ones were added, in which all the Italiotes
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VI, Word 693 (Word_ID 54949)
      citizens must have been nearly null. Etruria had taken no part in the Social War. The nobility was devoted to Rome, and the people lived in a condition approximating to bondage. The law Julia, which gave to the Italiotes the right
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VI, Word 715 (Word_ID 54971)
      the people lived in a condition approximating to bondage. The law Julia, which gave to the Italiotes the right of Roman city, and which took its name from its author, the consul L. Julius Caesar, produced among the Etruscans a complete
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VI, Word 778 (Word_ID 55034)
      weakness of the Republic to aggrandise himself. In 664, he invaded Bithynia and Cappadocia, and expelled the kings, allies of Rome. At the same time he entered into communication with the Samnites, to whom he promised subsidies and soldiers. Such was
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VI, Word 805 (Word_ID 55061)
      into communication with the Samnites, to whom he promised subsidies and soldiers. Such was the hatred then inspired by the Romans in foreign countries, that an order of Mithridates was was sufficient to raise the province of Asia, where, in one day,
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VI, Word 828 (Word_ID 55085)
      countries, that an order of Mithridates was was sufficient to raise the province of Asia, where, in one day, eighty thousand Romans were massacred. At this time the Social War was already approaching its end. With the exception of Samnium, all Italy
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 70 (Word_ID 55188)
      and the defects of most of those who played a part in these epochs of dissension. Escorted by six hundred Roman knights, whom he called the Anti-Senate, he sold publicly the right of citizen to freedmen and foreigners, and received the multitude, which, fatigued by the action and reaction of so many opposite parties, aspired to order and repose. If the conduct of Sylla had been moderated, what is called the Empire would probably have commenced with him; but his power was
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 207 (Word_ID 55325)
      the vote and Sylla, threatened with death, was obliged to take refuge in the house of Marius, and hastily quit Rome. Master of the town, Sulpicius showed the influences he obeyed, by causing to be given to the aged Marius the Republic, and trampled under foot with impunity ancient institutions and ancient customs; but their reign was ephemeral, for they only represented factions. Instead of embracing collectively the hopes and interests of all the peninsula of Italy, they favoured exclusively particular classes
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 313 (Word_ID 55431)
      Asia promised; and they swore to avenge their chief. Sylla placed himself at their head, and marched from Nola upon Rome, with his colleague, Pompeius Rufus, who had just joined him. The greater part of the superior officers dared not follow his predecessors, avoiding their faults as well as their errors. To the greatness of soul and love of the people of certain tribunes, it was needful to join the military genius of great generals and the strong sentiments of the Dictator
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 361 (Word_ID 55479)
      of the eternal city. In vain deputations are addressed to him; he marches onwards, and penetrates into the streets of Rome. Assailed by the inhabitants, and attacked by Marius and Sulpicius, he triumphs only by dint of boldness and energy. It The man capable of so lofty a mission already existed; but perhaps, in spite of his name, he might have still remained long unknown, if the penetrating eye of Sylla had not discovered him in the midst of the crowd, and,
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 390 (Word_ID 55508)
      and Sulpicius, he triumphs only by dint of boldness and energy. It was the first time that a general, entering Rome as a conqueror, had seized the power by force of arms. Sylla restored order, prevented pillage, convoked the assembly of Sylla had not discovered him in the midst of the crowd, and, by persecution, pointed him out to public attention. That man was Caesar.
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 529 (Word_ID 55647)
      of his rival. He proscribed the chiefs of the democratic faction, but most of them had fled before he entered Rome. Marius and his son had reached Africa through a thousand dangers. This revolution appears not to have been sanguinary, and,
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 813 (Word_ID 55931)
      against him. He was declared deposed from the consulate. A“ merited disgrace,” says Paterculus, but“ a dangerous precedent.” Driven from Rome, he hurried to Nola to demand an asylum of the Samnites, who were still in arms. Thence he went to
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 839 (Word_ID 55957)
      demand an asylum of the Samnites, who were still in arms. Thence he went to sound the temper of the Roman army employed to observe Samnium, and, once assured of the dispositions of the soldiers in his favour, he penetrated into
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 992 (Word_ID 56110)
      way with him to the pillage of the eternal city. War was on the point of re-commencing, and this time Romans and Italiotes marched united against Rome. From the north, Marius, Sertorius, and Carbo were advancing with considerable forces. Cinna, master
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 998 (Word_ID 56116)
      of the eternal city. War was on the point of re-commencing, and this time Romans and Italiotes marched united against Rome. From the north, Marius, Sertorius, and Carbo were advancing with considerable forces. Cinna, master of Campania, was penetrating into Latium,
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 1076 (Word_ID 56194)
      under favour of the disorder. Quitting his cantonments in Apulia, he had arrived, by forced marches, under the walls of Rome, seeking either to sell his services to the Senate or to effect a conciliation with Marius. He soon saw that
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 1255 (Word_ID 56373)
      its chief, his army passed over to the enemy; the Senate was without defenders, and the populace rose against it: Rome opened her gates to Cinna and Marius. The conquerors were without pity in putting to death, often with refinements in
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 1280 (Word_ID 56398)
      Cinna and Marius. The conquerors were without pity in putting to death, often with refinements in cruelty unknown to the Romans, the partisans of the aristocratic faction who had fallen into their hands. During several days, the slaves, whom Cinna had
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 1349 (Word_ID 56467)
      example of these wretches, and massacred nearly four thousand of them. Marius and Cinna had proclaimed, as they advanced upon Rome in arms, that their aim was to assure to the Italiotes the entire enjoyment of the rights of Roman city;
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 1368 (Word_ID 56486)
      upon Rome in arms, that their aim was to assure to the Italiotes the entire enjoyment of the rights of Roman city; they declared themselves both consuls for the year 668. Their power was too considerable to be contested, for the
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 1535 (Word_ID 56653)
      life, Scaevola was cited in judgment, by a tribune of the people, for not having received the blow fairly. While Rome and all Italy were plunged in this fearful anarchy, Sylla drove out of Greece the generals of Mithridates VI., and
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 1754 (Word_ID 56872)
      himself. Nothing now stood in the way of Sylla’s projects on Italy, and he prepared to make his enemies at Rome pay dearly for their temporary triumph. At the moment of setting sail, he wrote to the Senate to announce the
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 1800 (Word_ID 56918)
      Asia, and his own speedy return. Three years, he said, had been sufficient to enable him to re-unite with the Roman empire Greece, Macedonia, Ionia, and Asia, and to shut up Mithridates within the limits of his old possessions; he was
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 1823 (Word_ID 56941)
      Macedonia, Ionia, and Asia, and to shut up Mithridates within the limits of his old possessions; he was the first Roman who received an embassy from the King of the Parthians. He complained of the violence exercised against his friends and
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 2295 (Word_ID 57413)
      the legions of the younger Marius, whose name had raised him to the consulship. This battle rendered Sylla master of Rome; but to the north, in Cisalpine Gaul and Etruria, Carbo, in spite of frequent defeats, disputed the ground with obstinacy
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 2379 (Word_ID 57497)
      his power to raise the siege, conceived then the audacious and almost desperate idea of carrying his whole army to Rome, taking it by surprise, and sacking it. Let“ us burn the wolves’ den,” he said to his soldiers: so“ long
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 2434 (Word_ID 57552)
      Telesinus deceived the vigilance of his adversary; but, exhausted with fatigue, on arriving at the foot of the ramparts of Rome, the Samnites were unable to give the assault, and Sylla had time to arrive with the choicest of his legions.
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 2488 (Word_ID 57606)
      the day of the calends of November, 672, and it continued far into the night. The left wing of the Romans was beaten and took to flight, in spite of the efforts of Sylla to rally it; Telesinus perished in the
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 2718 (Word_ID 57836)
      had been granted them after the war of the allies; he invented a new punishment, that of proscription, and, in Rome alone, he banished four thousand seven hundred citizens, among whom were ninety senators, fifteen consulars, and two thousand seven hundred
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 3024 (Word_ID 58142)
      permitted the election of the consuls every year, an example which was subsequently followed by the emperors. Calm re-established in Rome, a new constitution was promulgated, which restored the aristocracy to its ascendency. The dictator fell into the delusion of believing
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 3212 (Word_ID 58330)
      superior magistracies. He flattered himself that he had thus removed the ambitious from a career henceforward profitless. He admitted into Rome ten thousand new citizens called( Cornelians), taken from among the slaves whose masters had been proscribed. Similar enfranchisements took place
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 3514 (Word_ID 58632)
      he sought to regulate the provinces and ameliorate their administration. The two consuls and the eight praetors were retained at Rome during their year of office by the administration of civil affairs. They took afterwards, in quality of proconsuls or propraetors,
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 3568 (Word_ID 58686)
      year; after which a new curiate law became necessary to renew the imperium; they preserved it until their return to Rome. Thirty days were allowed to them for quitting the province after the arrival of their successors. The number of praetors,
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 3783 (Word_ID 58901)
      and submissive crowd. Such was the ascendency of his old power, supported, moreover, by the ten thousand Cornelians present in Rome and devoted to his person, that, though he had resumed his position of simple citizen, he was still allowed to
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 3905 (Word_ID 59023)
      partisans enriched, but trembling for their riches; the numerous victims of tyranny held down, but growling under the oppression; lastly, Rome taught that henceforth she is without protection against the boldness of any fortunate soldier.
  • Book I, Chapter VI, Section VII, Word 242 (Word_ID 59279)
      given to the aged Marius the province of Asia, and the command of the expedition against Mithridates. But Sylla had his army in Campania, and was determined to support his own claims. While the faction of Marius, in the town, indulged Italy, they favoured exclusively particular classes of society. Some sought before all to secure the prosperity of the proletaries of Rome, or the emancipation of the Italiotes, or the preponderance of the knights; others, the privileges of the aristocracy. They failed.
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section I, Word 29 (Word_ID 59468)
      time when Marius, by his victories over the Cimbri and Teutones, saved Italy from a formidable invasion, was born at Rome the man who would one day, by again subduing the Gauls and Germans, retard for several centuries the irruption of
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section I, Word 64 (Word_ID 59503)
      for several centuries the irruption of the barbarians, give the knowledge of their rights to oppressed peoples, assure continuance to Roman civilisation, and bequeath his name to the future chiefs of nations, as a consecrated emblem of power. Caius Julius Caesar
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section I, Word 88 (Word_ID 59527)
      his name to the future chiefs of nations, as a consecrated emblem of power. Caius Julius Caesar was born at Rome on the 4th of the ides of Quintilis July( 12), 654, and the month Quintilis, called Julius July[] in honour
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section I, Word 309 (Word_ID 59748)
      who hold kings themselves under their subjection.” This proud glorification of his race attests the value which was set at Rome upon antiquity of origin; but Caesar, sprung from that aristocracy which had produced so many illustrious men, and impatient to
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section I, Word 482 (Word_ID 59921)
      Greece was always the country of the arts and sciences, and the language of Demosthenes was familiar to every lettered Roman. Thus Greek and Latin might be called the two languages of Italy, as they were, at a later period, by
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section I, Word 557 (Word_ID 59996)
      he neglected nothing, says Suetonius, by which to acquire those talents which lead to the highest honours. Now, according to Roman habits, the first offices were attainable only by the union of the most diverse merits. The patrician youth, still worthy
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section II, Word 27 (Word_ID 60873)
      672(). Such was Caesar at the age of eighteen, when Sylla seized the dictatorship. Already he attracted all eyes at Rome by his name, his intellect, his affable manners, which pleased men, and, perhaps, women still more. The influence of his
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section II, Word 267 (Word_ID 61113)
      of his wife’s dowry, and declared incapable of inheriting from his family. Obliged to conceal himself in the outskirts of Rome to escape persecution, he changed his place of retreat every night, though ill with fever; but, arrested by a band
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section III, Word 138 (Word_ID 61488)
      in his mission, and on his return aided in the capture of the city. Having saved the life of a Roman soldier, he received from Thermus a civic crown. Shortly afterwards he returned to Bithynia, to defend the cause of one
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section III, Word 366 (Word_ID 61716)
      was not only abhorred in the army, but, committed with a foreigner, would have been the most degrading disregard of Roman dignity. Wherefore Caesar, whose love for women ought to have shielded him from such a suspicion, repelled it with just
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section III, Word 461 (Word_ID 61811)
      he remained but a short time with Servilius, for, having been informed of the death of Sylla, he returned to Rome.
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section IV, Word 8 (Word_ID 61819)
      SECTION IV Caesar on his return to Rome 676(). The Republic, divided into two parties, was on the eve of falling into civil war through the diversity of
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section IV, Word 201 (Word_ID 62012)
      province, visited Etruria, where the partisans of Marius flocked to him. The Senate, informed of these doings, recalled him to Rome, towards the end of the year, to hold the comitia. Lepidus, leaving Brutus the praetor encamped near Mutina Modena(), marched
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section IV, Word 224 (Word_ID 62035)
      end of the year, to hold the comitia. Lepidus, leaving Brutus the praetor encamped near Mutina Modena(), marched back to Rome at the head of his army. Beaten by Catulus and Pompey at the bridge of Milvius, he withdrew to the
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section IV, Word 628 (Word_ID 62439)
      suffered so much from the regime preceding. He gained especially the good-will of the former, whose opinions, highly influential at Rome, helped to make reputations. These attacks were certainly a means of attracting public attention, but they also showed the courage
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section V, Word 31 (Word_ID 62503)
      as an orator, Caesar resolved to keep out of the troubles which agitated Italy, and doubtless felt his presence in Rome useless to his cause and irksome to himself. It is often advantageous to political men to disappear for a time
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section V, Word 366 (Word_ID 62838)
      himself loved and feared, and laughingly told them that, once free, he would have them crucified. Yet the remembrance of Rome recurred to his mind, and recalled the strifes and enmities he had left there. He was often heard to say,
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section V, Word 527 (Word_ID 62999)
      lessons of Apollonius Molo, the most illustrious of the masters of eloquence of that time, who had formerly been to Rome, in 672, as the Rhodian ambassador. About the same time one of his uncles, the proconsul M. Aurelius Cotta, was
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section V, Word 557 (Word_ID 63029)
      time one of his uncles, the proconsul M. Aurelius Cotta, was appointed governor of Bithynia, bequeathed by Nicomedes to the Roman people, and charged, with Lucullus, to oppose the new invasions of Mithridates. Cotta, beaten by land and sea near Chalcedon,
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section V, Word 614 (Word_ID 63086)
      afterwards relieved. On another side, Eumachius, a lieutenant of the King of Pontus, ravaged Phrygia, where he massacred all the Romans, and seized several of the southern provinces of Asia Minor. The rumours of war, the perils into which the allies
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section VI, Word 22 (Word_ID 63165)
      VI Caesar Pontiff and Military Tribune 680(-684). Whilst he was making war on the coasts of Asia, his friends at Rome did not forget him; and, seeing clearly the importance of Caesar’s being clothed with a sacred character, they nominated him
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section VI, Word 72 (Word_ID 63215)
      Cotta, consul in 680, who had died suddenly in Gaul the following year. This circumstance obliged him to return to Rome. The sea continued to swarm with pirates, who must necessarily owe him a grudge for the death of their comrades.
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section VI, Word 156 (Word_ID 63299)
      dearly; but his fears were not justified, and he landed safe and sound in Italy. Immediately on his return to Rome, he was elected military tribune, and succeeded by a large majority over his rival, C. Popilius. This already elevated rank,
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section VI, Word 293 (Word_ID 63436)
      a formidable army, bravely maintained the standard of Marius, and given the name of Senate to an assemblage of 300 Romans. Vanquisher of Metellus for several years, Sertorius, gifted with a vast military genius, exercising great influence over the Celtiberians and
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section VI, Word 692 (Word_ID 63835)
      combat him, and, having gained a victory in Picenum, for a moment he had entertained the thought of marching upon Rome at the head of 40,000 men. Nevertheless, forced to withdraw to the south of Italy, he contended against the Roman
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section VI, Word 712 (Word_ID 63855)
      Rome at the head of 40,000 men. Nevertheless, forced to withdraw to the south of Italy, he contended against the Roman forces successfully for two years, when at last, in 683, Licinius Crassus, at the head of eight legions, conquered him
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section VI, Word 786 (Word_ID 63929)
      Spain. The 6,000 prisoners taken in the battle fought in Apulia were hanged all along the road from Capua to Rome. Occasions for making himself perfect in the art of war were not wanting to Caesar; but we can understand his
  • Book II, Chapter I, Section VI, Word 1021 (Word_ID 64164)
      her conquering generals: she found herself in the presence of Crassus and Pompey, who, proud of their successes, advanced upon Rome at the head of their armies, to demand or seize the chief power. The Senate could be but little at
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section I, Word 128 (Word_ID 64428)
      of wheat; the tribuneship, its secular privileges; and the influential order of the knights, their political and financial importance. At Rome, no more guarantee for justice; in Italy, no more security for the rights of citizenship, so dearly acquired; in the
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section I, Word 600 (Word_ID 64900)
      infamies which have sullied the judicial powers for the ten years that they have been entrusted to the Senate. The Roman people shall learn from me how the knightly order has administered justice for nearly fifty consecutive years, without the faintest
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section I, Word 862 (Word_ID 65162)
      the laws against the avidity of the generals and farmers of the revenues, notwithstanding the patronage of the great at Rome, the conquered peoples were always a prey to the exactions of the magistrates, and Verres was a type of the
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section I, Word 979 (Word_ID 65279)
      their governors and their retinue, or to pay the farmers of the public revenues. Now, capital being nowhere but at Rome, they could only procure it at an excessive rate of interest; and the nobles, giving themselves up to usury, held
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section I, Word 1173 (Word_ID 65473)
      men, to bring under their authority those who were worth more than themselves. This is what drove Marius out of Rome, and led him back against Sylla; this is what made Cinna the murderer of Octavius, and Fimbria the murderer of
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section I, Word 1372 (Word_ID 65672)
      often weakened by an exaggeration of the principle on which it rests; and as war was the chief occupation at Rome, all the institutions had originally a military character. The consuls, the first magistrates of the Republic, elected by centuries—that is
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section I, Word 1701 (Word_ID 66001)
      absolutism of the Senate, the tyranny of wealth, which oppressed the poor by usury, and braved the law with impunity. Rome found herself divided into two thoroughly distinct parties; the one, seeing salvation only in the past, attached itself to abuses,
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section I, Word 1819 (Word_ID 66119)
      forgotten, and his great deeds alone remembered. Thus, the vengeance and massacres of Marius had faded away from memory at Rome. Only his victories, which had preserved Italy from the invasions of the Cimbri and the Teutones, were recalled; his misfortunes
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section I, Word 1986 (Word_ID 66286)
      less disgraced by excesses; to the war of the allies a character less hostile to the national unity of which Rome was the representative. As to Spartacus, by rousing the slaves he went beyond his aim, and his success threatened the
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section II, Word 313 (Word_ID 66679)
      times, he was great only while events were not greater than he. Nevertheless, he then enjoyed the highest reputation at Rome. By his antecedents he was rather the representative of the party of the aristocracy; but the desire of conciliating public
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section II, Word 353 (Word_ID 66719)
      public favour, and his own intelligence, made him comprehend the necessity of certain modifications in the laws: thus, before entering Rome to celebrate his triumph over the Celtiberians, he manifested the intention of re-establishing the prerogative of the tribunes, of putting
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section II, Word 476 (Word_ID 66842)
      to an immoderate desire for liberty. In publishing the programme of his conduct, of his own free will, before entering Rome, Pompey did not yield to a fascination cleverly exerted over him by Caesar, as several historians pretend; he obeyed a
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section II, Word 723 (Word_ID 67089)
      courteous disposition. Enriched under Sylla by purchasing the property of the proscribed, he possessed whole quarters of the city of Rome, rebuilt after several fires; his fortune was more than forty millions of francs a[ million and a half sterling], and
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section II, Word 954 (Word_ID 67320)
      front rank, he was very useful to Caesar, who did his best to gain his confidence. There“ existed then at Rome,” says Plutarch, three“ factions, the chiefs of which were Pompey, Caesar, and Crassus; Cato, whose power did not equal his
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section II, Word 1538 (Word_ID 67904)
      legal conditions. Contrary to the laws, a second triumph had been accorded him, as also the consulship, though out of Rome, and without having followed the necessary order of hierarchy of the magistracies. Full of presumption through the examples of the
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section III, Word 69 (Word_ID 68201)
      his wife Cornelia, and hastened to make a veritable political manifestation of their funeral oration. It was the custom at Rome to pronounce a eulogy on women only when they died at an advanced age. Caesar obtained public approbation by departing
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section III, Word 307 (Word_ID 68439)
      many centres of general meeting, where assizes for the regulation of business were held. These meetings were called conventus civium Romanorum, because the members who composed them were Roman citizens dwelling in the country. The praetor, or his delegate, presided over
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section III, Word 315 (Word_ID 68447)
      the regulation of business were held. These meetings were called conventus civium Romanorum, because the members who composed them were Roman citizens dwelling in the country. The praetor, or his delegate, presided over them once a year. Each province in Spain
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section III, Word 566 (Word_ID 68698)
      In fact, Caesar was then thirty-two years old, nearly the age at which Alexander died. Having obtained his recall to Rome, he stopped on his return in Gallia Transpadana 687(). The colonies founded in this country possessed the Latin law jus(
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section III, Word 601 (Word_ID 68733)
      country possessed the Latin law jus( Latii), which Pompeius Strabo had granted them, but they vainly demanded the rights of Roman city. The presence of Caesar, already known for his friendly feelings towards the provinces, excited a lively emotion among the
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section IV, Word 165 (Word_ID 69107)
      of Caieta Gaëta(), dared to land at Ostia, and carry off the inhabitants to slavery; sunk in mid seas a Roman fleet under the orders of a consul, and made two praetors prisoners. Not only strangers deputed to Rome, but the
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section IV, Word 183 (Word_ID 69125)
      seas a Roman fleet under the orders of a consul, and made two praetors prisoners. Not only strangers deputed to Rome, but the ambassadors of the Republic, had fallen into their hands, and had undergone the shame of being ransomed. Finally,
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section V, Word 153 (Word_ID 69746)
      to him the power which he already exercised over all the seas. It“ was,” says Plutarch, to“ submit the whole Roman empire to one sole man, and to deprive Lucullus of the fruits of his victories.” Never, indeed, had such power
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section V, Word 521 (Word_ID 70114)
      with the interests of castes or of persons, and events soon show that they are right. Lucullus had announced at Rome the end of the war; yet Mithridates was far from being conquered. This fierce enemy of the Romans, who had
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section V, Word 539 (Word_ID 70132)
      announced at Rome the end of the war; yet Mithridates was far from being conquered. This fierce enemy of the Romans, who had continued the struggle twenty-four years, and whom evil fortune had never been able to discourage, would not treat,
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section V, Word 574 (Word_ID 70167)
      able to discourage, would not treat, despite his sixty four years and recent reverses, save on conditions inadmissible by the Romans. The fame of Pompey then was not useless against such an adversary. His ascendency alone could bring back discipline into
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section V, Word 812 (Word_ID 70405)
      by their unruly ardour and subversive opinions. Manilius, in 688, suddenly re-opened a question which always created great agitation at Rome; this was the political emancipation of the freedmen. He obtained, by a surprise, the readoption of the law Sulpicia, which
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section VI, Word 26 (Word_ID 70506)
      689(). Whilst all the favours of fortune seemed to have accumulated on the idol of the moment, Caesar, remaining at Rome, was chosen inspector curator() of the Appian Way 687(). The maintenance of the highways brought much popularity to those who
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section VI, Word 156 (Word_ID 70636)
      Cursor, all the aeediles were accustomed to contribute to the embellishment of the Forum. Caesar celebrated with great pomp the Roman games, and the feast of Cybele, and gave the finest shows of wild beasts and gladiators ever yet beheld. The
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section VI, Word 716 (Word_ID 71196)
      party had a head. The term of his aedileship having expired, Caesar solicited the mission of transforming Egypt into a Roman province. The matter in hand was the execution of the will of King Ptolemy Alexas, or Alexander, who, following the
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section VI, Word 747 (Word_ID 71227)
      will of King Ptolemy Alexas, or Alexander, who, following the example of other kings, had left his state to the Roman peoples. But the will was revoked as doubtful, and it seems that the Senate shrank from taking possession of so
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section VI, Word 793 (Word_ID 71273)
      did Augustus later, to make the proconsul who should govern it too powerful. The mission of reducing Egypt to a Roman province was brilliant and fruitful. It would have given to those who might be charged with it extensive military power,
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section VI, Word 860 (Word_ID 71340)
      About the same time when Crassus was endeavouring to get the inhabitants of Gallia Transpadana admitted to the rights of Roman citizens, the tribune of the people, Caius Papius, caused to be adopted a law for the expulsion of all foreigners
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section VI, Word 882 (Word_ID 71362)
      the tribune of the people, Caius Papius, caused to be adopted a law for the expulsion of all foreigners from Rome. For, in their pride, the Romans thus called those who were not Latins by origin. This measure would specially affect
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section VI, Word 888 (Word_ID 71368)
      Papius, caused to be adopted a law for the expulsion of all foreigners from Rome. For, in their pride, the Romans thus called those who were not Latins by origin. This measure would specially affect the Transpadanes, who were devoted to
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section IX, Word 229 (Word_ID 72354)
      judges parties much more by the honourableness of men than by the value of ideas. What was then passing in Rome offers a striking example of this. Was it not reasonable, in fact, that men should hesitate to prefer a faction
  • Book II, Chapter II, Section IX, Word 355 (Word_ID 72480)
      than admit the possibility of becoming one day the defender of the cause of the allies claiming the rights of Roman citizens? How not comprehend the sentiments of Catulus and Hortensius obstinately defending the privileges of the aristocracy, and manifesting their
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section I, Word 276 (Word_ID 73143)
      superior merit, a new man had obtained it; but, on the approach of danger, envy and pride became silent.” The Roman aristocracy must have greatly lost its influence, when, at a critical moment, it allowed a new man to possess more
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section II, Word 169 (Word_ID 73452)
      domains of the Republic and private properties wherever they liked. No one could be appointed who was not present in Rome, which excluded Pompey, and the authority of the decemvirs was to be sanctioned by a curiate law. To them alone
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section II, Word 284 (Word_ID 73567)
      colonies anywhere they thought proper, particularly in the territory of Stella, and in the ager of Campania, where five thousand Roman citizens were to be established. In a word, the administration of the revenues and the resources of the State came
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section II, Word 664 (Word_ID 73947)
      dispose of kingdoms like Egypt, and of the immense territories of Asia. Capua would become the capital of Italy, and Rome, surrounded by a girdle of military colonies devoted to ten new tyrants, would lose its independence. To purchase the lands,
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section II, Word 830 (Word_ID 74113)
      sell them, and find no buyers! How many seek means, of whatever kind, to dispossess themselves of them!... And you, Romans, you are going to sell those revenues which your ancestors have acquired at the cost of so much sweat and
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section II, Word 1083 (Word_ID 74366)
      the disfavour attached to the national property, augmented the resources of the treasury, prevented the extravagance of the generals, delivered Rome from a turbulent and dangerous populace by wresting it from degradation and misery. He supported the rehabilitation of the children
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section II, Word 1207 (Word_ID 74490)
      were preparing a revolution; and Caesar, pained at seeing the Senate reject that sage and ancient policy which had saved Rome from so many agitations, resolved to undermine by every means its authority. For this purpose he engaged the tribune, T.
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section III, Word 18 (Word_ID 74561)
      SECTION III Trial of Rabirius 691(). For a long time, when internal or external troubles were apprehended, Rome was put, so to speak, in a state of siege, by the sacramental formula, according to which the consuls were
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section III, Word 113 (Word_ID 74656)
      extreme remedy. The tribunes always protested ineffectually against a measure which suspended all the established laws, legalised assassination, and made Rome a battle-field. Labienus tried anew to blunt in the hands of the Senate so formidable a weapon. Thirty-seven years before,
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section III, Word 443 (Word_ID 74986)
      he carried away the standard planted at the Janiculum. This battered flag formerly announced an invasion of the country round Rome. Immediately all deliberation ceased, and the people rushed to arms. The Romans were great formalists; and, moreover, as this custom
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section III, Word 455 (Word_ID 74998)
      formerly announced an invasion of the country round Rome. Immediately all deliberation ceased, and the people rushed to arms. The Romans were great formalists; and, moreover, as this custom left to the magistrates the power of dissolving at their will the
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section III, Word 602 (Word_ID 75145)
      regime, on the other he was the earnest advocate of the provinces, which vainly looked for justice and protection from Rome. He had, for example, the same year accused of peculation C. Calpurnius Piso, consul in 687, and afterwards governor of
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section IV, Word 57 (Word_ID 75270)
      influence to the individual clothed with it, for religion mingled itself in all the public and private acts of the Romans. Metellus Pius, sovereign pontiff, dying in 691, the most illustrious citizens, such as P. Servilius Isauricus, and Q. Lutatius Catulus,
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section V, Word 563 (Word_ID 76302)
      of November, a rising was to take place in Etruria; that on the morrow a riot would break out in Rome; that the lives of the consuls were threatened; that, lastly, everywhere stores of warlike arms and attempts to enlist the
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section V, Word 639 (Word_ID 76378)
      with scorn the projects of revolt which they imputed to him, he concludes with this threatening figure of speech: The“ Roman people is a robust body, but without head: I shall be that head.” He departed with these words, leaving the
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section V, Word 767 (Word_ID 76506)
      of the Tiber, a division of the fleet, previously employed against the pirates, was ready to second his projects. At Rome even the assassination of Cicero was boldly attempted. The Senate was convened again on the 8th of November. Catiline dared
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section V, Word 852 (Word_ID 76591)
      adherents, left the capital next morning to join Mallius. During the following days, alarming news arriving from all parts threw Rome into the utmost anxiety. Stupor reigned there. To the animation of f?™tes and pleasures had, all of a sudden, succeeded
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section V, Word 977 (Word_ID 76716)
      and depart as proconsul. The principal conspirators, at the head of whom were the praetor Lentulus and Cethegus, remained at Rome. They continued energetically the preparations for the insurrection, and entered into communication with the envoys of the Allobroges. Cicero, secretly
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section V, Word 1142 (Word_ID 76881)
      criminal judgments were not within its competence, and neither the consul nor the assembly had the right to condemn a Roman citizen without the concurrence of the people. Be that as it may, the senators assembled for a last time on
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section V, Word 1375 (Word_ID 77114)
      Perseus, the Republic of Rhodes, in its power and pride, although it owed its greatness to the support of the Roman people, proved disloyal and hostile to us; but when, on the termination of this war, the fate of the Rhodians
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section V, Word 2914 (Word_ID 78653)
      for his cause, and he goes to history to seek for facts which might authorise the putting to death of Roman citizens. He holds forth, as an example to follow, the murder of Tiberius Gracchus by Scipio Nasica, and that of
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section V, Word 4051 (Word_ID 79790)
      be seen afterwards, according to Plutarch, preferred being the first in a village in the Alps to being second in Rome, how could he have consented to be the second to Catiline? The attitude of Caesar in this matter presents nothing,
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section V, Word 4293 (Word_ID 80032)
      whole of Italy would have responded to his appeal, so weary were people of the humiliating yoke which weighed upon Rome; but they proclaimed him as one meditating conflagration, murder, and pillage. Already“,” it was said, the“ torches are lit, the
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section V, Word 4468 (Word_ID 80207)
      on their way to join the insurgents, and put to death by the order of their fathers. Nearly all the Roman youth, says Sallust, favoured at that time the designs of the bold conspirator, and, on the other hand, throughout the
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section V, Word 5259 (Word_ID 80998)
      make use of them, in despite of the advice of Lentulus, who addressed him in these pregnant words: Outlawed“ from Rome, what purpose can a Catiline have in refusing the services of slaves?” Finally, that among these insurgents, who are represented make use of them, in despite of the advice of Lentulus, who addressed him in these pregnant words: Outlawed“ from Rome, what purpose can a Catiline have in refusing the services of slaves?” Finally, that among these insurgents, who are represented
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section VII, Word 144 (Word_ID 81795)
      more, he used all his endeavours to reserve for Pompey one of those opportunities of gratifying personal vanity which the Romans prized so highly. It was the custom for those who were charged with the restoration of any public monument to more, he used all his endeavours to reserve for Pompey one of those opportunities of gratifying personal vanity which the Romans prized so highly. It was the custom for those who were charged with the restoration of any public monument to
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section VII, Word 602 (Word_ID 82253)
      know well how to avenge them both. It was the first time that a tribune had been known to abandon Rome and take refuge in the camp of a general. The Senate deprived him of his office, and Caesar of that know well how to avenge them both. It was the first time that a tribune had been known to abandon Rome and take refuge in the camp of a general. The Senate deprived him of his office, and Caesar of that
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section VII, Word 798 (Word_ID 82449)
      praetor were at the same time obliged to fly from their arbitrary proceedings. Ever since the days of the Gracchi, Rome had witnessed the same scenes of violence, sometimes on the part of the nobles, at others on the part of praetor were at the same time obliged to fly from their arbitrary proceedings. Ever since the days of the Gracchi, Rome had witnessed the same scenes of violence, sometimes on the part of the nobles, at others on the part of
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section VII, Word 1106 (Word_ID 82757)
      Not satisfied with conciliating the good-will of the people, Caesar won for himself the favour of the noblest dames of Rome; and, notwithstanding his notorious passion for women, we cannot help discovering a political aim in his choice of mistresses, since Not satisfied with conciliating the good-will of the people, Caesar won for himself the favour of the noblest dames of Rome; and, notwithstanding his notorious passion for women, we cannot help discovering a political aim in his choice of mistresses, since
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section V, Word 5259 (Word_ID 83399)
      make use of them, in despite of the advice of Lentulus, who addressed him in these pregnant words: Outlawed“ from Rome, what purpose can a Catiline have in refusing the services of slaves?” Finally, that among these insurgents, who are represented make use of them, in despite of the advice of Lentulus, who addressed him in these pregnant words: Outlawed“ from Rome, what purpose can a Catiline have in refusing the services of slaves?” Finally, that among these insurgents, who are represented
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section VII, Word 144 (Word_ID 84196)
      more, he used all his endeavours to reserve for Pompey one of those opportunities of gratifying personal vanity which the Romans prized so highly. It was the custom for those who were charged with the restoration of any public monument to more, he used all his endeavours to reserve for Pompey one of those opportunities of gratifying personal vanity which the Romans prized so highly. It was the custom for those who were charged with the restoration of any public monument to
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section VII, Word 602 (Word_ID 84654)
      know well how to avenge them both. It was the first time that a tribune had been known to abandon Rome and take refuge in the camp of a general. The Senate deprived him of his office, and Caesar of that know well how to avenge them both. It was the first time that a tribune had been known to abandon Rome and take refuge in the camp of a general. The Senate deprived him of his office, and Caesar of that
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section VII, Word 798 (Word_ID 84850)
      praetor were at the same time obliged to fly from their arbitrary proceedings. Ever since the days of the Gracchi, Rome had witnessed the same scenes of violence, sometimes on the part of the nobles, at others on the part of praetor were at the same time obliged to fly from their arbitrary proceedings. Ever since the days of the Gracchi, Rome had witnessed the same scenes of violence, sometimes on the part of the nobles, at others on the part of
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section VII, Word 1106 (Word_ID 85158)
      Not satisfied with conciliating the good-will of the people, Caesar won for himself the favour of the noblest dames of Rome; and, notwithstanding his notorious passion for women, we cannot help discovering a political aim in his choice of mistresses, since Not satisfied with conciliating the good-will of the people, Caesar won for himself the favour of the noblest dames of Rome; and, notwithstanding his notorious passion for women, we cannot help discovering a political aim in his choice of mistresses, since
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section VIII, Word 80 (Word_ID 85446)
      enter her house, the moment when she was celebrating, by night, attended by the matrons, mysteries in honour of the Roman people. Now, it was forbidden to a male to be present at these religious ceremonies, which it was believed that
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section VIII, Word 281 (Word_ID 85647)
      of his wife Terentia, came forward to assert that on the day of the event he had seen Clodius in Rome. The people showed its sympathy with the latter, either because they deemed the crime one that did not deserve a
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section IX, Word 9 (Word_ID 85873)
      SECTION IX Pompey’s Triumphal Return 692(). Whilst at Rome dissensions were breaking out on all occasions, Pompey had just brought the war in Asia to a close. Having defeated
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section IX, Word 378 (Word_ID 86242)
      obtained an enlargement of the kingdom of Cappadocia, which was re-established in his favour. Various minor princes devoted to the Roman interests received endowments, and thirty-nine towns were rebuilt or founded. Finally, Pontus, Cilicia, Syria, Phoenicia, declared to be Roman provinces,
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section IX, Word 397 (Word_ID 86261)
      the Roman interests received endowments, and thirty-nine towns were rebuilt or founded. Finally, Pontus, Cilicia, Syria, Phoenicia, declared to be Roman provinces, were obliged to accept the constitution imposed upon them by the conqueror. These countries received institutions which they preserved
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section IX, Word 435 (Word_ID 86299)
      which they preserved through several centuries. All the shores of the Mediterranean, with the exception of Egypt, became tributaries of Rome. The war in Asia terminated, Pompey sent before him his lieutenant, Pupius Piso Calpurnianus, who was soliciting the consulship, and
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section IX, Word 521 (Word_ID 86385)
      desired. For no one knew his designs; and it was feared lest, on his return, he should again march upon Rome at the head of his victorious army. But Pompey, having landed at Brundusium about the month of January, 693, disbanded
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section IX, Word 547 (Word_ID 86411)
      victorious army. But Pompey, having landed at Brundusium about the month of January, 693, disbanded his army, and arrived at Rome, escorted only by the citizens who had gone out in crowds to meet him. After the first display of public
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section IX, Word 859 (Word_ID 86723)
      elected with Q. Metellus Celer. But, before proposing the laws which concerned him, Pompey, who till then had not entered Rome, demanded a triumph. It was granted him, but for two days only. However, the pageant was not less remarkable for
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section IX, Word 1037 (Word_ID 86901)
      and a half seventy(-nine millions of francs [£3,160,000]). Among the precious objects that were exposed before the eyes of the Romans was the Dactylotheca or( collection of engraved stones) belonging to the King of Pontus; a chessboard made of only two
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section IX, Word 1680 (Word_ID 87544)
      to admit that that dangerous populace, those dregs of the city sentina( urbis), must be removed to a distance from Rome, though in former days he had engaged that same populace to remain in Rome, and enjoy their festivals, their games,
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section IX, Word 1694 (Word_ID 87558)
      be removed to a distance from Rome, though in former days he had engaged that same populace to remain in Rome, and enjoy their festivals, their games, and their rights of suffrage. Finally, he proposed to buy private estates, and leave
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section X, Word 41 (Word_ID 87850)
      to revive only for the purpose of throwing obstacles in its way. Military glory and eloquence, those two instruments of Roman power, inspired only distrust and envy. The triumph of the generals was regarded not so much as a success for
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section X, Word 560 (Word_ID 88369)
      his most legitimate demands with a refusal, a refusal which will teach generals to come, that, when they return to Rome, though they have increased the territory of the Commonwealth, though they have doubled the revenues of the Republic, if they
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section X, Word 1012 (Word_ID 88821)
      ruining us: he judges things as if we were living in Plato’s Republic, while we are only the dregs of Romulus.” Nothing, then, arrested the march of events; the party of resistance hurried them forward more rapidly than any other. It
  • Book II, Chapter III, Section X, Word 1125 (Word_ID 88934)
      a rock, flattered himself that alone he could resist the irresistible stream that was carrying away the old order of Roman society.
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section I, Word 10 (Word_ID 88948)
      SECTION I Caesar Propraetor in Spain 693(). WHILST at Rome ancient reputations were sinking in struggles destitute alike of greatness and patriotism, others, on the contrary, were rising in the
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section I, Word 176 (Word_ID 89114)
      supposed; but its motive was the desire to carry assistance to the allies, who were imploring the protection of the Romans against the mountaineers of Lusitania. Always devoted without reserve to those whose cause he espoused, he took with him into
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section I, Word 214 (Word_ID 89152)
      with him into Spain his client Masintha, a young African of high birth, whose cause he had recently defended at Rome with extreme zeal, and whom he had concealed in his house after his condemnation, to save him from the persecutions
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section I, Word 292 (Word_ID 89230)
      were solicitations and rivalries for offices. He answered, gravely, I“ would rather be first among these savages than second in Rome.” This anecdote, which is more or less authentic, is repeated as a proof of Caesar’s ambition. Who doubts his ambition?
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section I, Word 340 (Word_ID 89278)
      it were legitimate or not, and if it were to be exercised for the salvation or the ruin of the Roman world. After all, is it not more honourable to admit frankly the feelings which animate us, than to conceal, as
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section I, Word 476 (Word_ID 89414)
      a similar fate, the neighbouring tribes conveyed their families and their most precious effects across the River Durius Douro(). The Roman general hastened to profit by the opportunity, penetrated into the valley of the Mondego to take possession of the abandoned
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section I, Word 534 (Word_ID 89472)
      and resolved to accept battle, driving their flocks and herds before them, in the hope that, through this stratagem, the Romans would leave their ranks in their eagerness to secure the booty, and so be more easily overcome. But Caesar was
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section I, Word 813 (Word_ID 89751)
      at the sight of the vessels, which were strange to them, surrendered voluntarily. The whole of Lusitania became tributary to Rome. Caesar received from his soldiers the title of Imperator. When the news of his successes reached Rome, the Senate decreed
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section I, Word 830 (Word_ID 89768)
      became tributary to Rome. Caesar received from his soldiers the title of Imperator. When the news of his successes reached Rome, the Senate decreed in his honour a holiday, and granted him the right of a triumph on his return. The
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section I, Word 960 (Word_ID 89898)
      him great honour. This measure was, in fact, an act which tended to the preservation of property; it prevented the Roman usurers from taking possession of a debtor’s entire capital to reimburse themselves; and we shall see that Caesar made it
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section I, Word 1076 (Word_ID 90014)
      who became magister fabrorum chief( engineer) during his Gaulish wars, and who was defended by Cicero when his right of Roman citizen was called in question. Though he administered his province with the greatest equity, yet, during his campaign, he had
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section II, Word 14 (Word_ID 90167)
      SECTION II Caesar demands a Triumph and the Consulship 694(). Caesar returned to Rome towards the month of June without waiting for the arrival of his successor. This return, which the historians describe as
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section II, Word 143 (Word_ID 90296)
      distinction; but it was granted with difficulty. To obtain a triumph, it was necessary to remain without the walls of Rome, to retain the lictors and continue the military uniform, and to wait till the Senate should fix the date of
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section II, Word 180 (Word_ID 90333)
      fix the date of entry. To solicit for the consulship, it was necessary, on the contrary, to be present in Rome, clad in a white robe, the costume of those who were candidates for public offices, and to reside there several
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section II, Word 1049 (Word_ID 91202)
      important part, or even secure his own personal safety, unless he allied himself with men of the sword. Whilst at Rome the masters of the world were wasting their time in mean quarrels, alarming news came suddenly to create a diversion
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section II, Word 1193 (Word_ID 91346)
      Cicero were at once pronounced; but the Senate, influenced by different motives, declared that their presence was too necessary in Rome to allow them to be sent away. They were unwilling to give the former an opportunity of again distinguishing himself,
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section III, Word 182 (Word_ID 91558)
      wife Mutia, whilst he, like Agamemnon, was making war in Asia. Resentment, on this account, usually slight enough among the Romans, soon disappeared before the exigencies of political life. As for Crassus, who had long been separated from Pompey by a
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section III, Word 330 (Word_ID 91706)
      inspired by a genuine patriotism. The condition of the Republic must have appeared thus to his comprehensive grasp of thought:—The Roman dominion, stretched, like some vast figure, across the world, clasps it in her sinewy arms; and whilst her limbs are
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section III, Word 383 (Word_ID 91759)
      some heroic remedy be applied, the contagion will soon spread from the centre to the extremities, and the mission of Rome will remain unfinished!—Compare with the present the prosperous days of the Republic. Recollect the time when envoys from foreign nations,
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section III, Word 421 (Word_ID 91797)
      from foreign nations, doing homage to the policy of the Senate, declared openly that they preferred the protecting sovereignty of Rome to independence itself. Since that period, what a change has taken place! All nations execrate the power of Rome, and
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section III, Word 440 (Word_ID 91816)
      of Rome to independence itself. Since that period, what a change has taken place! All nations execrate the power of Rome, and yet that power preserves them from still greater evils. Cicero is right, Let“ Asia think well of it: there
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section III, Word 686 (Word_ID 92062)
      in number by restoring their freedom to the cities which are worthy of it, and acknowledging as friends of the Roman people those nations with whom there is a chance of living in peace. Our most dangerous enemies are the Gauls,
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section III, Word 746 (Word_ID 92122)
      directed.—In Italy, and under this name Cisalpine Gaul must be included, how many citizens are deprived of political rights! At Rome, how many of the proletaries are living on the charity either of the rich or of the State! Why should
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section III, Word 771 (Word_ID 92147)
      proletaries are living on the charity either of the rich or of the State! Why should we not extend the Roman commune as far as the Alps, and why not augment the race of labourers and soldiers by making them landowners?
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section III, Word 793 (Word_ID 92169)
      as far as the Alps, and why not augment the race of labourers and soldiers by making them landowners? The Roman people must be raised in its own eyes, and the Republic in the eyes of the world!—Absolute liberty of speech
  • Book II, Chapter IV, Section III, Word 982 (Word_ID 92358)
      governs the passions, tempers the laws, gives a greater stability to power, directs the elections, maintains the representatives of the Roman people in their duty, and frees us from the two most serious dangers of the present: the selfishness of the
  • Book II, Chapter V, Section II, Word 379 (Word_ID 94144)
      take the engagement to observe it. Nobody“,” says Dio Cassius, had“ reason for complaint on this subject. The population of Rome, the excessive increase of which had been the principal aliment of seditions, was called to labour and a country life;
  • Book II, Chapter V, Section II, Word 473 (Word_ID 94238)
      contrary, it gave to several honours and power.” Thus, while some historians accuse Caesar of seeking in the populace of Rome the point of support for his ambitious designs, he, on the contrary, obtains a measure, the effect of which is
  • Book II, Chapter V, Section II, Word 1345 (Word_ID 95110)
      then a refugee at the court of King Prusias, engaged the latter to accept his plans of campaign against the Romans; the king refused, because the auspices had not been favourable. What“!” cried Hannibal, have“ you more confidence in a miserable
  • Book II, Chapter V, Section II, Word 1621 (Word_ID 95386)
      that about a hundred thousand persons became husbandmen, and re-peopled with free men a great portion of the territory, while Rome was relieved from a populace which was inconvenient and debased. Capua became a Roman colony, which was a restoration of
  • Book II, Chapter V, Section II, Word 1635 (Word_ID 95400)
      great portion of the territory, while Rome was relieved from a populace which was inconvenient and debased. Capua became a Roman colony, which was a restoration of the democratic work of Marius, destroyed by Sylla. It appears that the ager of
  • Book II, Chapter V, Section II, Word 1804 (Word_ID 95569)
      the State was relieved from the enormous charges imposed by the necessity of distributing wheat to all the poor of Rome. Nevertheless, the allotment of the ager Campanus and of the ager of Stella met with many delays; it was not
  • Book II, Chapter V, Section III, Word 399 (Word_ID 96023)
      forged will of Ptolemy Alexander, or Alexas, to whose fall he had contributed, his kingdom might be incorporated with the Roman Empire. Auletes, perceiving his authority shaken in Alexandria, had sought the support of Pompey during the war in Judaea, and
  • Book II, Chapter V, Section III, Word 471 (Word_ID 96095)
      policy, or from a wish to please his son-in-law, caused Ptolemy Auletes to be declared a friend and ally of Rome. At his demand, the same favour was granted to Ariovistus, king of the Germans, who, after having made war upon
  • Book II, Chapter V, Section III, Word 515 (Word_ID 96139)
      withdrawn from their country at the invitation of the Senate, and had expressed a desire to become an ally of Rome. It was entirely the interest of the Republic to conciliate the Germans, and send them to the other bank of
  • Book II, Chapter V, Section III, Word 831 (Word_ID 96455)
      of all, master irrevocably. The inactivity of Bibulus had only served to increase his power. Thus it was said in Rome, as a jest, that men knew of no other consulship than that of Julius and Caius Caesar, making two persons
  • Book II, Chapter V, Section III, Word 1295 (Word_ID 96919)
      explaining their administration and their expenses, of which three copies were to be deposited, one in the treasury aerarium() at Rome, and the others in the two principal towns of the province. The propraetors were to remain one year, and the
  • Book II, Chapter V, Section III, Word 1537 (Word_ID 97161)
      senators, who, travelling into the provinces on their own affairs, obtained by an abuse the title of envoy of the Roman people, to which they had no right, in order to be defrayed the expenses and costs of travelling. These missions,
  • Book II, Chapter V, Section III, Word 1666 (Word_ID 97290)
      law is referred to. Its object was to meet all cases of peculation, out of Italy as well as in Rome. Persons who had been wronged could demand restitution before a legal tribunal of the sums unjustly collected. Though the principal
  • Book II, Chapter V, Section III, Word 1966 (Word_ID 97590)
      challenge to three. Vatinius had also conferred on five thousand colonists, established at Como Novum( Comum), the rights of a Roman city. This measure flattered the pride of Pompey, whose father, Pompeius Strabo, had rebuilt the town of Comum; and it
  • Book II, Chapter V, Section III, Word 1998 (Word_ID 97622)
      Strabo, had rebuilt the town of Comum; and it offered to other colonists the hope of obtaining the qualification of Roman citizens, which Caesar subsequently granted to them. Another devoted partisan of the consul, the praetor Q. Fufius Calenus, proposed a
  • Book II, Chapter V, Section IV, Word 340 (Word_ID 98469)
      as it would have been impossible for him to repair thither during the winter, and so preserve continuous relations with Rome. The proposal of Vatinius, on the contrary, having for its object only Cisalpine Gaul and Illyria, they could scarcely refuse
  • Book II, Chapter V, Section IV, Word 532 (Word_ID 98661)
      was too prudent to provoke his enemies in their face at the moment he was going to a distance from Rome. Always“ master of himself,” says an old writer, he“ never needlessly ran against anybody.”
  • Book II, Chapter V, Section V, Word 1410 (Word_ID 100085)
      Ariovistus confessed to him, in an interview on the banks of the Rhine, that many of the important nobles of Rome had designs against his life. Against such animosities he had the task, no easy one, of directing the elections. The
  • Book II, Chapter V, Section V, Word 1431 (Word_ID 100106)
      had designs against his life. Against such animosities he had the task, no easy one, of directing the elections. The Roman constitution caused new candidates to spring up every year for honours; and it was indispensable to have partisans amongst the